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Non-linear rheology reveals the importance of elasticity in meat and meat analogues



Texture maps of meat and meat analogues

Figure 2 shows a texture map using the stress and strain values ​​at the end of the LVE regime of meat and meat analogues at 30 °C and samples heated to 65 °C and subsequently cooled to 30 °C. Meat products behave “mushy” at 30 °C, while meat analogues are “chewy”. Heating and subsequent cooling (ie at 65°C and chilled to 30°C) of meat products changed the texture from mushy to chewy. This behavior was most pronounced in chicken and salmon. Heat denaturation of myofibrillar proteins in meat generally caused toughness21. After heating, the meat products (e.g., chicken and cod) were in the same area of ​​the map as the meat analogues (e.g., “Kipstuckjes” and “pea-based chick free”) (Table S1). For meat analogues (e.g. “Vivera”) only a small shift due to heat treatment was observed in the texture maps, meaning that the stress and strain values ​​at the end of the LVE were hardly affected by heating (Table S1). Some meat analogues shift slightly in the opposite direction (“chewy” to “mushy”) when compared to meat. The limited effect of heating on meat analogs is not unexpected since the commercial meat analogs tested were most likely heated during processing and any denaturation or cross-linking of the protein was already complete as a result of this thermal treatment.

figure 2

Texture map at the end of the LVE regime for meat (a) and meat analogues (b) heated to 30 °C and heating to 65 °C and cooling to 30 °C. Lines are drawn to guide the eye and show the outline. The gray area in the texture map of meat analogs shows the outlines of meat products, also shown in (a).

The end of the LVE is not very “sensitive” to structural differences, so we continue evaluating the behavior at the crossing point in Fig. 3. This point is generally considered to be the elongation where the storage modulus equals the loss modulus (({G}^{{^{prime}}}={G}^{“})). Heating and cooling (i.e., at 65°C and cooling to 30°C) meat products resulted in a texture map shift from mushy to chewy. The crossover stresses of different meat analogs at 30 °C and preheated to 65 °C and chilled to 30 °C are comparable, but the crossover strains are different for each meat analog (Table S2).

figure 3figure 3

Texture map at the crossing point for meat (a) and meat analogs (b) heated to 30°C and heating to 65°C and cooling to 30°C. Note that the scales of the x and y axes are different from those in Fig. 2. Lines are drawn to guide the eye and show the outline, the gray area in the texture map of meat analogs shows the outline of meat products shown in (B).

Dissipation color scheme to describe the dissipation ratio

A more accurate assessment of the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of meat and meat analogs was obtained using Lissajous curves. The loss ratio was calculated to extract the essence of the nonlinear behavior17,22,23,24. The dissipation values ​​are presented in a dissipation color scheme for easy comparison. The top panel of Figs. 4 and 5 show dissipation color schemes for meat and meat analogues. The lower panel of Figs. 4 and 5 show the corresponding elastic Lissajous curves for the lattice values ​​of the applied strain amplitude and the temperature, which are marked by the crosses in the left panel (dissipation color scheme of the dissipation ratio). As expected, both meat and meat analogs show an increase in the dissipation ratio for increasing strain amplitudes, shown by an increase in the area encompassed by the Lissajous curves. Heating made the meat more elastic for all strain amplitudes, but a more abrupt transition to viscous/plastic behavior was also observed.

figure 4figure 4

Color scheme of the loss ratio (({upvarphi})) in a strain-temperature diagram for meat and fish at 30 °C, heating to 65 °C and heating to 65 °C and cooling to 30 °C. The color corresponds to the value of the loss ratio (({upvarphi})) in the color bar, ({upvarphi})= 0, elastic; ({upvarphi}hspace{0.17em})= π/4, Newtonian liquid; ({upvarphi})= 1, perfect plastic. Lower part: Lissajous curve of stress-strain amplitude at three different strain amplitudes corresponding to the X symbol in the upper panel (individual plots of normalized stress [solid lines] and elastic tension [dashed lines] vs. stretching).

Figure 5Figure 5

Color scheme of the loss ratio (({upvarphi})) in a strain-temperature diagram for meat analogues at 30 °C, heated to 65 °C and heated to 65 °C and cooled to 30 °C. The color corresponds to the value of the loss ratio (({upvarphi})) in the color bar, ({upvarphi}hspace{0.17em})= 0, elastic; ({upvarphi})= π/4, Newtonian liquid; ({upvarphi}hspace{0.17em})= 1, perfect plastic. Lower part: Lissajous curve of stress-strain amplitude at three different strain amplitudes corresponding to the X symbol in the upper panel (individual plots of normalized stress [solid lines] and elastic tension [dashed lines] vs. stretching).

Narrow ellipses at low strain amplitude were observed in meat at 30 °C, indicating an increase in the elasticity of the sample. At higher strain amplitudes, the Lissajous curves showed a gradual transition to a more diamond-shaped shape, indicating a transition to plastic behavior. After heating to 65°C and cooling, the curves become narrower than the curves of the unheated meat samples, indicating an increase in elasticity in the sample. Compared to the unheated samples, we now see a much stronger strain stiffening effect in the mid-strain region, shown by an inverted sigmoidal shape of the plots. At the highest strains, the sigmoidal shape widens, indicating a gradual transition to plastic behavior. Similar dissipation color maps and Lissajous curves as for meat were found for cod and salmon, including the observation that the curves adopt an inverted sigmoidal shape after heating.

Depending on the strain amplitude and the products, a darkening of the blue color in maps indicates that the products have gained elasticity. The positive effect of heating on elasticity was shown for two products (Vegetarian basis wokstukjes & Kipstuckjes) treated under low and medium shear. Heating did not change “the shape” of the Lissajous curves in the case of two meat analogs (Chickless Pea Base & Stukjes as van Kip). Instead, the loss ratio for meat analogs gradually transitioned from elastic to plastic as a function of increasing strain amplitudes, in a manner similar to unheated meat analogs.

To describe the local changes in the material within a strain cycle, the stiffening ratio or S-factor in Eq. (4):

$${rm S}=frac{{G}_{L}^{prime}}-{G}_{M}^{{prime }}}{{G}_{L}^ {{prime}}}$$


Where ({G}_{L}^{{prime}}) is the large strain modulus (or secant modulus) that describes the slope of a line between the origin and the stress at maximum strain in the Lissajous curve. The module ({G}_{M}^{{prime}}) is the slope of the Lissajous curve at no load. In the linear regime ({G}_{L}^{{prime}})=({G}_{M}^{{prime}}), and therefore ({rm S} )=0 by definition. In Fig. 6 the S-factor is plotted as a function of the strain amplitude. For small strain amplitudes, the S-factor is actually close to zero. With increasing strain amplitude, the S-factor increases, indicating in-cycle strain stiffening. After heating to 65°C and cooling, the meat products (ie chicken, pork, beef, salmon and cod) show a larger S-factor and hence a greater strain stiffening effect in the mid-strain range compared to the unheated samples. The meat analogs showed significantly less stress stiffening upon deformation.

Figure 6Figure 6

Stiffening ratio (S-factor) as a function of strain amplitude for meat and meat analogs. Dashed lines are drawn to guide the eye and show the outlines for the highest and lowest values ​​of meat and fish from the meat analog graphs.

All materials show obvious stiffening; shows decreasing curves for the ({G}_{L}^{{prime}}), and ({G}_{M}^{{prime}}). For meat and fish that ({G}_{M}^{{prime}}) decreases faster than that ({G}_{L}^{{prime}}) indicating a positive S-factor and greater apparent strain stiffening in the mid-strain region (Supplementary Fig. S1). The meat analog products show fewer differences between the ({G}_{L}^{{prime}}), and ({G}_{M}^{{prime}}) upon deformation, it shows a milder apparent extensional stiffening (Supplementary Fig. S2).

We conclude that meat products have a lower loss ratio and higher S-factor than current meat analogues, especially after heating. The observed differences in elastic properties and stiffness are expected to result in differences in sensory properties. For example, a previous study showed that the nonlinear rheology of whey protein isolate/k-carrageenan gels correlated with sensory and oral processing. The relationship ({G}_{L}^{{prime}})/({G}_{M}^{{prime}}) positively and negatively correlated with oral processing data, which includes aspects after multiple chews and the first bite25. In other words, the nonlinear rheological properties of meat and meat analogues can identify and quantify differences between meat and meat analogues.

Nonlinear elasticity, and in particular strain stiffening, is generic to filament/fiber networks. The strain at which stiffening becomes significant is strongly dependent on the persistence length of the filament in a protein-based network. Stiffer filaments, such as F-actin or collagen, stiffen at low loads, while more flexible filaments only stiffen at higher loads26. The higher stiffness for meat products could be related to their unique hierarchical structure on small length scales. Future developments in meat analogues should therefore focus on ways to create more stiffness and elasticity, for example by creating more physical and chemical interactions on a mesoscopic length scale, which to some extent also creates a hierarchical structure.

Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Guiding the way to thrive



Jan Juc naturopath Rebecca Winkler has always found joy in the practice of cooking nourishing meals for others.

That pastime spilled over into developing recipes and it was during lockdown that her culinary passion led her to become a qualified plant-based chef and a raw dessert chef.

Now the mum-of-two has expertly thrown all of her skills into the mix to achieve a long-held goal of producing a book.

Released as an eBook, with a print version to hopefully follow, 14 Day Whole Food Feast is a comprehensive two-week meal plan designed to nourish the body and delight the tastebuds.

Within its pages are recipes for whole food snacks, lunch and dinner meals, lunchbox ideas, and time-saving tips.

14 Day Whole Food Feast by Rebecca Winkler is available now as an eBook.

“My motivation was both personal and professional,” Rebecca says.

“On a professional note, I found so many patients were having difficulty finding family-friendly, whole food recipes to help them navigate various dietary needs.

“The recipes are easy to follow, a shopping list is provided and time frames are taken into account so slower cooked meals or more time-consuming recipes are saved for weekends.”

Rebecca says the eBook can function purely as a recipe resource or be followed meticulously for a 14-day reset.

“Food prep guidance is given at the start of each week in order to get ahead and be organized as possible.

The eBook includes lunch, dinner and snack ideas, as well as shopping lists and naturopathic advice.

“Dinners are often incorporated into leftovers for lunch the next day and naturopathic guidance is provided around ways to maximize your time by incorporating regular exercise and practicing self-care.”

The idea for the book began to brew in 2019 during a solo trip Rebecca took with colleagues which gave her the space to establish a clear vision for the content she wanted to share.

“I began developing and refining recipe, enlisting a beautiful photographer and graphics team to allow my dream to be realised.

“The long-term plan is to release a number of other eBooks and, eventually, print a hard copy, real-life book to be loved and to splash your chocolate and bolognaise sauce on. The kind of recipe book that you find yourself grabbing time and time again.”

The eBook is filled with nutritious recipes and much more.

So, what are some of Rebecca’s personal favorites featured in her carefully curated eBook?

“Ooh, that’s like trying to choose a favorite child,” she laughs.

“I know it might seem boring, but the slow-cooked bolognaise with hand-made gluten-free fettucine is an absolute favourite.
“We make it weekly in my house and every time my kids exclaim ‘this is the best bolognaise ever’.”

The slow cooked beef pie, kafir lime chicken balls and whole food cranberry bliss balls are also hard to pass up, she says.

Rebecca avoids listing ideal ingredients for people to incorporate into their diet, instead saying the most beneficial ingredients are those that make you feel at your best.

“Not everyone tolerates grains, some don’t tolerate fruit, others have difficulty digesting meat and protein.

“My advice is to listen and take note of how your body feels when you eat.

“Are you bloated, do you have pain in your gut, loose stools, headaches or fatigue?

Rebecca is a qualified naturopath, as well as being a plant-based chef and raw dessert chef.

“I am more inclined to advise people to source good quality ingredients, grow what they can, and cook from scratch as much as time and money allows.

“Eat three meals a day and snack only if you are hungry, growing, pregnant or exercising.

“Try to consume 30-35ml of water per kg of body weight. Add plenty of vegetables, fresh herbs, variety and colour.

“Our gut flora thrives on variety, so mix up your veggies, fruits, grain, legumes and proteins. Eat the rainbow.”

To get the most out of the eBook, the author suggests reading it from cover-to-cover and choosing a 14-day period where you are at home and have minimal social engagements.

Rebecca is passionate about naturopathy which she describes as a holistic, comprehensive view of the body in its entirety and “a wonderful adjunct to Western Medicine for patients as it ensures medical due diligence is exercised, adequate diagnostic testing where appropriate and an individualized approach to restoring health”.

Rebecca’s advice is to “eat the rainbow” when it comes to healthy food choices.

She says many of her clients are seeking ways to regain optimal health following extended periods of lockdown during the pandemic.

“There is no doubt that most of us found ourselves allowing more in alcohol and comfort foods over lockdown, which is nothing to feel ashamed about.

“In such a difficult, confining and overwhelming time, we sought comfort where ever it may lie for us.

“This is not a failure, it was merely a way for so many to cope. I never judge anyone’s choices, I merely try to support, understand and listen.

“Often we already know what we need to do to rebuild or move forward, simply sharing and being heard without shame or judgment is therapeutic.

“I cannot describe to you the genuine joy that seeing people thrive provides.”

14 Day Whole Food Feast retails for $19.95 and on the Rebecca Winkler website. Discover more and contact Rebecca via her Facebook page, Instagram @rebeccawinklernaturopath or email [email protected]

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Get to know farro and other superfood whole grains



By Casey Barber, CNN

Quinoa has reached a level of superfood status not seen since the great kale takeover of the aughts. Equally embraced and mocked in pop culture, it’s become the symbol of the grain bowl generation. It’s not the only whole grain that’s worth bringing to the table, however.

The world of whole grains is wide, and if quinoa and brown rice have been the only grains on your plate, it’s time to expand your palate. Here’s an introduction to whole grains, along with tips for cooking and enjoying them.

What’s a whole grain?

The term “whole grains” encompasses all grains and seeds that are, well, whole. They retain all their edible parts: the fiber-rich outer bran layer; the carbohydrate-rich endosperm center, which makes up the bulk of the grain itself; and the inner core, or germ, which is packed with vitamins, protein and healthy fats.

On the other hand, refined grains such as white rice and all-purpose flour have been milled to remove the bran and germ, stripping away much of the fiber, protein and vitamins, and leaving only the starchy endosperm.

“A lot of people don’t realize that whole grains contain several grams of protein in addition to vitamins and antioxidants,” said Nikita Kapur, a registered dietitian nutritionist in New York City. With every serving of whole grains, “you get a ton of minerals, B vitamins and fiber, which is especially important for good health.”

So-called “ancient grains” fall under the umbrella of whole grains, though the phrase is more of a marketing term than a marker of a more nutritious option. Ancient grains refer to whole grains like millet, amaranth, kamut and, yes, quinoa that have been the staple foods of cultures for several hundred years. They are not hybridized or selectively bred varieties of grains, like most modern wheat, rice and corn.

And though quinoa has gotten all the press as a whole grain superfood, there’s good reason to try others. Trying a variety of whole grains isn’t just a way to mix up your same-old side dish routine. It’s also a chance to get a wider portfolio of minerals and more into your diet.

“Suffice to say, we need to have a more diverse plant-based diet” to get the full complement of recommended nutrients in our meals, Kapur said, “and we can’t get it from the same 10 or 20 foods.

“One grain might have more manganese, another more zinc or magnesium, and another more protein,” she added. “Try one as a pasta, one as a porridge — you do you, as long as there’s a variety.”

Familiar foods like oats, corn, brown and other colors of rice, as well as wild rice (which is an aquatic grass), are all considered whole grains, but there are many others you’ll want to add to your regular repertoire.

Some whole grains to get to know

amaranth is a tiny gluten-free grain that can be simmered until soft for a creamy polenta-like dish, but it also makes a deliciously crunchy addition to homemade energy bars or yogurt bowls when it’s been toasted. To toast amaranth seeds, cook over medium heat in a dry pan, shaking frequently until they begin to pop like minuscule popcorn kernels.

Buckwheat is gluten-free and botanically related to rhubarb, but these polygonal seeds (also called groats) don’t taste anything like fruit. You might already be familiar with buckwheat flour, used in pancakes and soba noodles, or Eastern European kasha, which is simply toasted buckwheat.

Faro is the overarching Italian name for three forms of ancient wheat: farro piccolo, or einkorn; farro medio, or emmer; and farro grande, or spelled. The farro you typically find at the store is the emmer variety, and it’s a rustic, pumped-up wheat berry that’s ideal as a grain bowl base. Or make an Italian-inspired creamy Parmesan farro risotto.

Freekeh is a wheat variety that’s harvested when unripe, then roasted for a surprisingly smoky, nutty flavor and chewy texture. Freekeh’s taste is distinctive enough that it steals the spotlight in your meals, so use it in ways that highlight its flavor. It’s fantastic in a vegetarian burrito bowl paired with spicy salsa, or in a warming chicken stew.

kamut is actually the trademarked brand name for an ancient type of wheat called Khorasan, which features large grains, a mild taste and tender texture. It’s a good, neutral substitute for brown rice in a pilaf or as a side dish. Or try this high-protein grain in a salad with bold flavors like arugula, blood orange and walnut.

millet is a gluten-free seed with a cooked texture similar to couscous. Teff is a small variety of millet that’s most frequently used as the flour base for Ethiopian injera flatbread. Try raw millet mixed into batters and doughs for a bit of crunch, like in this millet skillet cornbread recipe, or use either teff or millet cooked in a breakfast porridge.

How to cook any whole grain

While cooking times vary for each grain, there’s one way to cook any whole grain, whether it’s a tiny seed or a large, chewy kernel: Boil the grains like pasta.

Bring a large pot of water to a boil and add a handful of kosher salt. Add the grains and cook, tasting as you go, until tender. Small grains like amaranth and quinoa can cook fully in five to 15 minutes, while larger grains like farro and wild rice can take anywhere from 30 minutes to one hour — so keep an eye on your pot and check it frequently.

Drain well in a mesh strainer (to catch all those small grains) and either use immediately or allow to cool slightly, then refrigerate for later meals. Cooked whole grains can also be portioned, frozen and stored in airtight bags for up to six months.

If you want to cook your whole grains in an Instant Pot or other multicooker, this chart offers grain-to-water ratios for many of the grains mentioned here.

The CNN Wire
™ & © 2021 Cable News Network, Inc., a WarnerMedia Company. All rights reserved.

Casey Barber is a food writer, illustrator and photographer; the author of “Pierogi Love: New Takes on an Old-World Comfort Food” and “Classic Snacks Made from Scratch: 70 Homemade Versions of Your Favorite Brand-Name Treats”; and editor of the website Good. foods Stories.

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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Travel: A quaint county seat with Mayberry charm | Lifestyles – Travel



I finally ventured out for my first road trip of 2022 earlier this month. It’s been way too long since I took a little trip and it was long overdue. My last little getaway was in Chicago the week of Christmas. The day I returned I wasn’t feeling very well and an at-home test confirmed that I had COVID — again.

The first time was in November 2020 and it was a severe case that landed me in the hospital with pneumonia and difficulty breathing and then many months of recovery. Luckily this time around it just lasted a couple of weeks. At the same time I was pushing through COVID we were in the process of moving. And my Dad, who had tested positive for COVID not long before me, passed away. So, it’s been a heck of a start to 2022. A getaway was much needed.

It was a brief 24 hours in the Indianapolis area, but as always I packed a bit in and had a lot of good food. On our way down we stopped off in Rensselaer for lunch at Fenwick Farms Brewing Co. and took a little walk to check out the murals that are part of the Ren Art Walk. That evening I attended a media opening of the newly reopened Dinosphere exhibit at the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.

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It’s a place I adore and still enjoy visiting even though my kids are teenagers and young adults now. I love being greeted by the huge Bumblebee character on the way in from what is probably my favorite action move, “The Transformers.” The largest children’s museum in the world has so much to see and I’ve loved having the chance to explore it both with and without my kids.

After the event it was a quick overnight at Staybridge Suites in Plainfield, and in the morning we headed to Danville. Danville is the county seat of Hendricks County. I adore county seats with downtown squares and this is one of my favorites. On an earlier visit there we were in town for the Mayberry in the Midwest festival, which had lots of activities related to the classic TV show “The Andy Griffith Show” that was set in the fictional town of Mayberry.

Danville definitely has that charming, inviting, friendly small town vibe that feels like it could be a sitcom setting. We ate at the Mayberry Cafe where old episodes play on television screens and the menu is full of down-home, made-with-love comfort foods, with a specialty being “Aunt Bee’s Famous Fried Chicken.” I tried it and it was very tasty. The whole place made me smile like Opie after a fishing outing with his dad.

This time our dining destination was The Bread Basket. I had tried their desserts at a few events, but it was my first time dining in. It’s located in a house that was built for the president of Central Normal College in 1914 and is cute and cozy. It’s a breakfast and lunch spot, so plan to go early and be prepared for a wait during peak times (but it’s well worth it).

My Dilly Turkey Sandwich on fresh wheat nut bread with an Orchard Salad was delicious. I loved that they had a combo option where you could pick a half sandwich and half salad or cup of soup. But the desserts are the real star here. I stared at that dessert case for several minutes — and I wasn’t the only one.

I was seated next to it, and watched intently each time they removed a pie or cake from the case to cut a slice. I tried the Hummingbird Cake, which was a perfect treat without being too rich, and then noticed another that was so unique I had to get a slice to take home — the Blackberry Wine Chocolate Cake. If you go there and are overwhelmed with choices, go with this. You won’t regret it.

After lunch, we made our way over to the Hendricks County Historical Museum & Old County Jail, which is just off the square. For someone like me who loves history, this was a wonderful stop to incorporate into our day. It was built in 1866 and used as a jail all the way up until 1974. You can go into the old jail cells (two on the female side and four on the male side) and tour the sheriff’s home.

An exhibit has information and artifacts from when Central Normal College existed (later Canterbury College). There’s also a temporary chronological exhibit about music and musicians, featuring many Hoosier hitmakers.

After the visit, I took a breezy little walk around the square, where I was reminded that there is a nostalgic old movie theater. The historic Danville Royal Theater dates back to the early 1900s and shows current movies for just $5 a ticket.

It was then getting close to dinner time, so we decided to eat before we headed back home. A place in the nearby town of North Salem had been recommend to me and I am so glad we took time to visit. I chatted for a few minutes with Damiano Perillo, owner of Perillo’s Pizzeria. He’s a native of Palermo, the capital of Sicily. The food is authentic and almost all of it is made fresh daily, including their garlic rolls, marinara and alfredo sauces. The New York-style pizzas are perfection.

They even have a nearby garden where they grow many of the fresh vegetables and herbs used in their dishes. They have gluten free pastas, too, and the lady at the next table had some and was raving about it. We also tried the homemade Sicilian cannoli and the limoncello flute, and trust me when I say to definitely not skip dessert.

There was one last food stop. Although we had just eaten, I realized we’d be driving right by Rusted Silo Southern BBQ & Brewhouse in Lizton and just couldn’t pass it up. I made my husband pull in and pick up some food to go. We got the brisket and their house made pimento cheese, chorizo ​​and kielbasa and took it home. I was introduced to it last fall and there is a reason they have been voted Best BBQ in the Indy area four years in a row. I loved hearing about how this eatery located next to a railroad literally stops trains in their tracks to get food from this award-winning BBQ joint.

All three of these places — The Bread Basket, Perillo’s Pizzeria and Rusted Silo are ones that you should absolutely include in your itinerary if you happen to be in the Indianapolis area.

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