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Prolonged sitting raises mortality risk



Share on PinterestNew research highlights the risks of prolonged sedentary work for cancer survivors. Linda Raymond / Getty Images

  • The number of people who survive cancer is growing.
  • However, cancer and cancer treatments can cause longer-term health problems.
  • Less physical activity and prolonged sitting can increase the risk of various diseases.
  • In a new study, researchers found that people who had survived cancer who had the least amount of physical activity and had the most freedom of movement were the most at risk of death.

In the study, the team also found that less physical activity and prolonged sitting were linked to an increased risk of dying from cancer.

The study, published in the journal JAMA Oncology, provides evidence to clinicians to develop strategies to reduce sitting time and increase physical activity for people who have survived cancer.

The number of people who survive cancer is increasing worldwide. As treatment and detection improve, and people live longer, researchers estimate that by 2030 there will be 22.1 million people in the United States who will have survived cancer.

However, this also reflects a greater need to understand what affects survival rates for people with cancer.

Physical activity is an important factor. Researchers know that it reduces the risk of various chronic diseases. There is also evidence that physical activity is linked to a lower risk of death for people with severe cancer.

A key question for researchers is whether the benefits of physical activity can reduce the risks associated with cancer survival – including the risks associated with the cancer and its treatments, such as side effects.

Researchers now also know that sitting for longer increases the risk of developing certain diseases.

Sitting for long periods has been linked to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. This is especially true for people who also do little physical activity.

With this in mind, the researchers behind the present study wanted to investigate the relationship between sitting time, physical activity and mortality risk for people who have survived cancer.

Medical News Today spoke to Chao Cao, a co-author on the study and a graduate student in the Exercise Science program at Washington University School of Medicine.

Cao stated, “The number of cancer survivors is growing rapidly and it is predicted that a third of the [U.S.] The population will be diagnosed with cancer at some point in their life by 2040. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find accessible strategies for cancer survivors to improve their long-term health. “

“Even though [the] Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans [says] that physical activity and exercise can benefit all people, the evidence on the health benefits of physical activity in cancer patients is still limited. Sedentary behaviors such as sitting for a long time, [have become] very common in the last 2 decades and have grown due to the [COVID-19] Pandemic. However, we didn’t know how sedentary behaviors affected cancer survival. “

Cao said that lack of evidence meant clinicians were unable to optimally support people who have survived cancer.

“Cancer survivors who have consistently participated in our clinical trials [sought] Advice on changing their lifestyle to improve their health. “

“However, due to the limited evidence, the current guideline is[s] no specific recommendations on sedentary behavior considering physical activity for cancer survivors. [This] Prevents healthcare providers from prescribing lifestyle change advice aimed at physical activity and sedentary behavior. “

To fix this, the researchers pulled data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which covered the years 2007 to 2014.

The researchers identified a representative sample of 1,535 people who had survived cancer and were over 40 years old.

Information about cancer was obtained during each participant’s initial interview, in which participants also reported their sitting and leisure activity rates over a typical week.

The researchers accessed mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics, which provides access to the National Death Index. The team tracked participant mortality through December 31, 2015.

The researchers found that more than half of the participants did not engage in any physical activity in their spare time, and two-thirds typically sat for more than 6 hours a day.

A third of the participants did not do any physical activity in their free time and sat for more than 6 hours a day.

The researchers found a link between increased sitting time and an increased risk of death from cancer, non-cancer, and all other causes.

However, the researchers also found that this relationship did not apply to people who were “sufficiently” active – who did at least 150 minutes a week of leisure time.

Participants who were not sufficiently active or inactive and typically sat more than 8 hours a day had a five-fold increased risk of dying from cancer, non-cancer, and all causes.

Dr. Alpa Patel, Senior Vice President of Population Science for the American Cancer Society, spoke to MNT about the results. She said, “This study is important because it highlights that physical inactivity puts cancer survivors at greater risk of dying from cancer or some other cause, but it is the first to collectively show that sitting too much puts cancer survivors at even greater risk exposes. “of dying.”

“About a third of the cancer survivors in this study were both physically inactive and spent more than 6 hours a day sitting. This lifestyle was associated with a more than four times higher risk of dying from any cause, and cancer specifically, compared to those who achieved the recommended amount of activity and sat for less than 6 hours a day. These results reaffirm the importance of physical activity and the reduction of sedentary behavior for better health outcomes. “

According to Cao, recreational physical activity can help address some of the problems related to long periods of sitting, but it is still important to avoid long periods of sitting.

“Current data suggests that getting enough physical activity could mitigate the harmful effects of sitting. The critical problem here is that almost 3 out of 4 [U.S.] Cancer survivors did not meet physical activity guidelines and would take excessive risks from sitting. Some mechanistic studies have also suggested that prolonged sitting may create exercise resistance and reduce the benefits of physical activity. “

Because of this, Cao said, “For most cancer survivors, it is important to avoid long periods of sitting. Meanwhile, new evidence suggests that[s] that breaking up from long periods of sitting can bring health benefits without reducing the overall sitting time. ”

In an interview with MNT, Dr. Michael Fredericson, professor of orthopedic surgery at the Stanford Medicine Outpatient Center, said the new research is valuable because it establishes connections between people without cancer and people who had survived the cancer. As Dr. Patel was Dr. Fredericson was not involved in the study.

“Conversely, physical activity is associated with an increased risk of more than ten cancers, and sedentary behavior is positively and independently associated with an increased risk,” said Dr. Fredericson.

“While this is widely recognized in the cancer-free population, this is one of the first studies to examine the relationship between prolonged sitting and cancer survival.”

Dr. Fredericson said that other lifestyle factors, such as a person’s diet, can also affect the risk of death for people who have survived cancer.

“Epidemiological studies show that whole grains, fiber, fruits and vegetables in the diet are linked to a reduced risk of cancer. Obesity is also a critical contributor to cancer risk and mortality, accounting for approximately 40% of cancers diagnosed in the United States [U.S.]. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central feature of obesity and leads to many of its complications. “

Dr. Commented Patel, “Much of what people can do after they are diagnosed with cancer is similar to what they can do to reduce their risk of developing cancer. This includes not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active, limiting the time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors such as watching television, eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and avoiding alcohol. ”

“The American Cancer Society publishes guidelines for both cancer prevention and cancer survivors that can be found [here], “She added.

Cao said the team will continue to develop their research in the hope that better interventions can increase physical activity and reduce the amount of time spent sitting.

“We will conduct clinical studies to understand the biological mechanisms that drive the associations between sedentary behavior and cancer survival, and develop theory-based interventions that can be incorporated into the treatment of cancer survivors to reduce sedentary behavior and physical activity to increase.”

Dr. Fredericson noted that a number of additional factors could contribute to the development of the research.

“Randomized controlled studies of the impact of physical activity and nutritional factors on immunity, inflammation, gene regulation, circadian disorder and the gut microbiome will be critical to advancing this field.”

Dr. Patel commented on how much more research is needed.

“We want to understand exactly how much and what types of physical activity are most beneficial. We also need to understand whether physical activity is equally important for all cancer survivors. The benefits of physical activity are enormous and include benefits for different types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental health, and more. “

– DR. Alpa Patel

Whole Grain Benefits

For the 55-and-over crowd, March 27-April 3, 2022 | Local News



For information about services available to older adults, contact Pam Jacobsen, director of the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program and Helen Mary Stevick Senior Citizens Center, 2102 Windsor Place, C, at 217-359-6500.

RSVP and the Stevick Center are administered by Family Service of Champaign County.


  • Active Senior Republicans in Champaign County’s monthly meeting will be held at 9:30 am on April 4 in the Robeson Pavilion Room A & B at the Champaign Public Library. This month’s speakers will be Jesse Reising, Regan Deering and Matt Hausman, Republican primary candidates for the newly redrawn 13th Congressional District.
  • Parkland Theater House needs four ushers each night for “The SpongeBob Musical,” opening April 14. There will be nine shows in total — April 14-16, April 22-24 and April 29-May 1. For details, call or email Michael Atherton, Parkland Theater House Manager, or 217-373-3874.
  • Parkland College also needs four volunteers for commencement. The commencement ceremony will be in person at Krannert Center for the Performing Arts at 8 pm May 12. Volunteers needed from 6:30 to 8 pm For details, contact Tracy Kleparski, Director of Student Life, at or 217- 351-2206.
  • The Milford High School National Honor Society and Student Council is hosting a Senior Citizens Banquet at 6 pm April 22. The event will be held in the MAPS #124 Gymnasium (park at south doors at Milford High School. To RSVP, call Sandy Potter at 815-471-4213.


Knit or crochet for those in need:

Meditative Movement with Yoga:

  • 9 to 10:15 am Tuesdays and Thursdays.


  • 11 am to noon, second and fourth Tuesdays. Call 217-359-6500.


  • Noon to 3 pm Thursdays.


Card game 13:

  • To sign up to play, call 217-359-6500 and ask for Debbie.

Men’s group:

  • 9 am Monday-Friday. Join us for a cup of coffee and great conversation.


The Peace Meal Nutrition Program provides daily hot lunches at 11:30 am for a small donation and a one-day advance reservation at sites in Champaign, Urbana, Rantoul, Sidney (home delivery only), Mahomet (home delivery only) and Homer.

For reservations, call 800-543-1770. Reservations for Monday need to be made by noon Friday.

NOTE: There is no change for home deliveries, but at congregate sites, you can get a carry-out meal.


  • BBQ pork sandwich, mini potato bakers, corn, creamy cole slaw, bun.


  • Turkey pot roast with carrots and celery, Italian green beans, pineapple, whole grain roll.


  • Savory sausage stew, broccoli, chunky apple sauce, biscuit, surprise dessert.


  • Meatloaf, mashed potatoes and brown gravy, tomatoes and zucchini, apricots, whole-grain roll.


  • Chef’s choice — regional favorites will be served.


If you are 55 and older and want to volunteer in your community, RSVP (funded by AmeriCorps Seniors and the Illinois Department on Aging) provides a unique link to local nonprofits needing help. We offer support, benefits and a safe connection to partner sites.

Contact Pam Jacobsen at or 217-359-6500.


Senior Volunteers.

  • RSVP of Champaign, Douglas and Piatt counties/AmeriCorps Senior Volunteers is your link to over 100 nonprofit organizations. Please contact Pam Jacobsen at or call 217-359-6500 for volunteer information.

Food for seniors. Handlers needed to unload boxes of food for repackaging at 7 am on the second and fourth Tuesdays of the month. We are looking for backup delivery drivers to deliver food to seniors. Contact Robbie Edwards at 217-359-6500 for info.

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Whole Grain Benefits

The future of nutrition advice



By Lisa Drayer, CNN

(CNN) — Most of us know we should eat more fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

So why would the National Institutes of Health spend $150 million to answer questions such as “What and when should we eat?” and “How can we improve the use of food as medicine?”

The answer may be precision nutrition, which aims to understand the health effects of the complex interplay among genetics, our microbiome (the bacteria living in our gut), our diet and level of physical activity, and other social and behavioral characteristics.

That means that everyone could have their own unique set of nutritional requirements.

How is that possible? I asked three experts who conduct precision nutrition research: Dr. Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology and chair of the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, and Martha Field and Angela Poole, both assistant professors in the division of nutritional sciences at Cornell University’s College of Human Ecology.

Below is an edited version of our conversation.

CNN: How is precision nutrition different from current nutrition advice?

dr Frank Hu: The idea of ​​precision nutrition is to have the right food, at the right amount, for the right person. Instead of providing general dietary recommendations for everyone, this precision approach tailors nutrition recommendations to individual characteristics, including one’s genetic background, microbiome, social and environmental factors, and more. This can help achieve better health outcomes.

CNN: Why is there no one-size-fits-all prescription when it comes to what we should be eating?

Huh: Not everyone responds to the same diet in the same way. For example, given the same weight-loss diet, some people can lose a lot of weight; other people may gain weight. A recent study in JAMA randomized a few hundred overweight individuals to a healthy low-carb or low-fat diet. After a year, there was almost an identical amount of weight loss for the two groups, but there was a huge variation between individuals within each group — some lost 20 pounds. Others gained 10 pounds.

Martha Field: Individuals have unique responses to diet, and the “fine adjust” of precision nutrition is understanding those responses. This means understanding interactions among genetics, individual differences in metabolism, and responses to exercise.

CNN: How do we eat based on precision nutrition principles now?

Huh: There are some examples of personalized diets for disease management, like a gluten-free diet for the management of celiac disease, or a lactose-free diet if you are lactose intolerant. For individuals with a condition known as PKU (phenylketonuria), they should consume (a) phenylalanine-free diet. It’s a rare condition but a classic example of how your genes can influence what type of diets you should consume.

Angela Poole: If I had a family history of high cholesterol, diabetes or colon cancer, I would increase my dietary fiber intake, eating a lot of different sources, including a variety of vegetables.

fields: If you have high blood pressure, you should be more conscious of sodium intake. Anyone with a malabsorption issue might have a need for higher levels of micronutrients such as B vitamins and some minerals.

CNN: There is research showing that people metabolize coffee differently. What are the implications here?

Huh: Some people carry fast caffeine-metabolizing genes; others carry slow genes. If you carry fast (metabolizing) genotypes, you can drink a lot of caffeinated coffee because caffeine is broken down quickly. If you are a slow metabolizer, you get jittery and may not be able to sleep if you drink coffee in the afternoon. If that’s the case, you can drink decaf coffee and still get the benefits of coffee’s polyphenols, which are associated with decreased risk of heart disease and diabetes without the effects of caffeine.

CNN: How much of a role do our individual genes play in our risk of disease? And can our behavior mitigate our disease risk?

Huh: Our health is affected by both genes and diets, which constantly interact with each other because certain dietary factors can turn on or off some disease-related genes. We published research showing that reducing consumption of sugary beverages can offset the negative effects of obesity genes. That’s really good news. Our genes are not our destiny.

Another area of ​​precision nutrition is to measure blood or urine metabolites, small molecules produced during the breakdown and ingestion of food. For example, having a higher concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) strongly predicts one’s future risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The blood levels of BCAAs depend on individuals’ diet, genes and gut microbiome. We found that eating a healthy (Mediterranean-style) diet can mitigate harmful effects of BCAAs on cardiovascular disease. So measuring BCAAs in your blood may help to evaluate your risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease and encourage dietary changes that can lower the risk of chronic diseases down the road.

fields: The environmental effects can sometimes be on the same magnitude as the genetic effects with respect to risk for disease.

CNN: Our individual microbiomes may be able to dictate what type of diet we should be consuming. Can you tell us about this emerging research? And what do you think of microbiome tests?

Poole: Research has shown that in some people, their blood sugar will spike higher from eating bananas than from eating cookies, and this has been associated with microbiome composition. Scientists have used microbiome data to build algorithms that can predict an individual’s glucose response, and this is a major advance. But that’s not an excuse for me to shovel down cookies instead of bananas. Likewise, if the algorithm suggests eating white bread instead of whole-wheat bread due to blood glucose responses, I wouldn’t just eat white bread all the time.

At the moment, I’m not ready to spend a lot of money to see what’s in my gut microbiome… and the microbiome changes over time.

Huh: Microbiome tests are not cheap, and the promise that this test can help develop a personalized meal plan that can improve blood sugar and blood cholesterol … at this point, the data are not conclusive.

CNN: How will nutrition advice be different 10 years from now?

Poole: I think you will receive a custom-tailored grocery list on an app — foods that you want to buy and foods that you want to avoid, based on your blood sugar responses to foods, your level of physical activity and more.

Huh: We will have more and better biomarkers and more affordable and accurate nutrigenomics and microbiome tests as well as better computer algorithms that predict your response to food intakes.

But these technologies cannot substitute general nutrition principles such as limiting sodium and added sugar and eating more healthy plant foods. In a few years, you may be able to get a more useful response from Alexa if you ask her what you should eat — but like other answers from Alexa, you’ll have to take it with a grain of salt.

The CNN Wire
™ & © 2022 Cable News Network, Inc., a WarnerMedia Company. All rights reserved.

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Whole Grain Benefits

Are Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwiches Healthy?



In order to assess its nutritional value, first we must discuss the breakdown of this sandwich.

Typically, there are three main ingredients — bread, peanut butter, and jelly — each with different nutritional values.

Nutritional value of bread

Bread can be a part of a balanced diet. The nutritional value of bread depends on the type chosen.

For starters, whole-grain bread is the best option because it provides a higher amount of nutrients. Whole grain kernels have three parts: the bran, endosperm, and germ (1).

Because whole grain bread retains all three parts, it’s higher in protein and fiber compared with other breads. These nutrients slow the absorption of sugar into your blood stream and keep you full longer (2, 3).

Whole grain bread is also richer in key nutrients, like B vitamins, iron, folate, and magnesium. Look for the word “whole” as part of the first ingredient in bread’s nutritional label (2).

Choosing sprouted grain bread, like Ezekiel bread, is also an excellent choice. The sprouting process increases digestibility and bioavailability of nutrients. Studies show sprouted bread has more fiber, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and beta-glucan (4).

Sourdough bread is fine, too. Although it’s not as high in fiber and protein, it has a lower glycemic index than white bread.

Glycemic index measures how quickly food increases blood sugars. In general, foods with a lower glycemic index better support your overall health.

But keep in mind that glycemic index doesn’t tell the whole story. We must look at the meal as a whole — for example, what we add to the bread. Nutrients, like protein and fats, can help lower the overall glycemic load of a meal, and serving sizes also play a role (5).

As a guideline, look for whole grain breads that offer at least 2 grams of fiber per slice. We also suggest using bread that contains 3 grams of protein or more per slice.

If that’s not available, sourdough bread may be your next best option.


Choose breads that are higher in fiber and protein, like whole grain bread or sprouted grain bread. These varieties help slow absorption of sugars and keep you full longer.

Nutritional value of peanut butter

Many people find peanut butter delicious.

Nutritionally, it also delivers. Peanut butter is a good source of protein and healthy fats, important for all stages of life, especially growing children. Plus, it’s a good source of fiber.

Two tablespoons (32 grams) of smooth peanut butter contain 7 grams of protein, 16 grams of fats, and 2 grams of fiber (6).

Importantly, the majority of fats in peanut butter are unsaturated fats. Research consistently indicates that replacing saturated fats found in animal products with more unsaturated fats (like those in peanut butter) may lower cholesterol and improve heart health (7, 8).

For growing kids, healthy fats are vital for healthy development. Plus, fats help absorb the vitamins A, D, E, and K, all of which play a synergistic role in supporting immune and brain health (9, 10).

Contrary to popular belief, conventional peanut butter doesn’t usually have more sugar than 100% natural peanut butter. However, it may have more salt (6).

When shopping, check the nutrition labels to ensure it doesn’t contain additional ingredients other than peanuts.

When enjoying natural peanut butter, the oil will separate from the peanut butter. Not to fret — just give it a good stir! This helps mix the oils with the solids.

Pro tip: You can store peanut butter upside down in the fridge to keep it from separating again!


When available, choose 100% natural peanut butter, as it’s lower in salt. Remember to stir the peanut butter before eating to mix the oils with the solids.

Nutritional value of jelly

The PB&J sandwich isn’t complete without jelly or jam. What’s the difference, anyway?

Well, while jellies and jams have similar nutritional value and taste, there’s a slight difference: Jellies are made with fruit juice, while jam is made with the fruit juice and pulp (7).

Both jellies and jams contain pectin (artificially added to jelly), which has prebiotic effects that may improve gut health (8).

However, both are naturally high in sugar, so enjoy them in moderation. To have more say in the ingredients used, you can try making your jelly at home.

If you’re buying from a store, look for jellies with no added sugar in the ingredients list. Alternative names for added sugars include glucose, sucrose, dextrose, and fructose.


Jellies are high in natural sugars and contain pectins that may have a beneficial effect in promoting good health. Try to choose jellies with no added sugars.

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