Whether you are gluten sensitive or bake for a celiac guest, replacing wheat flour is the first step in keeping gluten off the table.
“Flour is the backbone of most baked goods and contributes to the development of gluten, a type of protein that is responsible for the elasticity when tearing open a loaf of bread and the chewability when eating,” says recipe developer and food author. Beth Lipton, author of C.onernivor-ish.
But cutting out the gluten isn’t always easy as it swaps out the all-purpose fours for a different variety – especially if you want your bread, cake, and biscuits to taste like bread, cakes, and cookies. “It’s one of the building blocks of structure and texture, so any replacement will produce results that aren’t exactly what you’re used to,” says Lipton.
Gluten-free baking can be tricky, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try: with patience, trial and error can get you the result you want. And remember, if you’re trying a new recipe that you don’t like, you can always turn bread into French toast or croutons, cakes into cake balls, and cookies into a crumbled topping of ice cream.
Replacing all-purpose flour for a gluten-free alternative can be easier when cooking: if the ingredient shows gravy, sauces thicken, and bread ingredients like chicken and pork chops use, substitutions may be more acceptable. Read on for gluten-free flour substitutes and what you need to know about them.
Gluten-free flour substitute
Gluten-free flour mixes
Gluten-free flour mixes contain a mixture of the ingredients listed below as well as starches and binders – however, they can vary widely in taste and performance in different recipes, says Lipton, who has tested a wide variety extensively and attested the most expensive options are not always the best. “If you’re just getting into a new experience, these flour mixes are a really good place to start,” says Lipton. “They’ve already done the mixing for you, which takes the pressure off getting the proportions right.”
This grain-free flour substitute made from yucca most closely mimics all-purpose flour in texture and taste, according to Lipton, who describes the taste as mild and almost tasteless with a very light, floury texture. If you swap cassava flour for all-purpose flour, you will need a little less because cassava flour is more absorbent than all-purpose flour and overuse can result in baked goods that are denser than intended in the recipe. Determining the exact amount of cassava flour can take a little trial and error. Lipton recommends using a food scale instead of a measuring spoon to make your tests more precise.
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While almond flour can replace all-purpose flour, consider it an alternative rather than a direct substitute. “It behaves like flour, but not like wheat flour,” explains Lipton. She recommends using almond flour in meatballs or breading, or in baked goods that already call for almond flour – think banana bread or cookies – as these recipes took the flavor profile of almonds into account.
If you’re using almond flour, try 3/4 cup almond flour plus 1/4 cup arrowroot or tapioca starch to lighten things up. Lipton likes to use 3/4 cup almond flour Pulse 3 tablespoons of starch and 1 tablespoon of collagen peptides, proteins that give a more even texture and crumb and can remove the sponginess of almond flour. “But prepare for success by using a recipe that calls for almond flour in the first place,” she says.
Coconut flour is made from ground coconut meat and is very absorbent, making it difficult to process. “You can’t replace regular flour one-for-one,” warns Lipton. “It would take a lot of baking expertise and patience for trial and error.”
The properties of this ingredient are so unique that many coconut flour recipes only require a tablespoon or two of the stuff. “It can seem like a mistake to someone new to baking with it,” says Lipton. “But you are much more likely to succeed if you choose a recipe that already calls for it.”
Because buckwheat has such a distinctive taste and weighs more per cup than all-purpose flour, it’s not an ideal substitute for wheat flour. “You can swap some flour for buckwheat flour,” says Lipton. “But I would not remove everything as you would get a very difficult result in the end.” If Lipton had to, she would use 3/4 cup cassava flour and 1/4 cup buckwheat for every cup of all-purpose flour a recipe called for.
Related: Breadcrumb Substitute
This gluten-free whole wheat flour has a mild, nutty taste. You can substitute up to 25 percent of the flour in a recipe, according to millet flour Bob’s red mill, a manufacturer of millet flour. “I probably wouldn’t bake anything other than bread with it,” says Lipton.
Thanks to its mild taste and smooth texture, you can often find sorghum mixed in gluten-free flour mixes that contain a binding agent like xanthan gum. Instead of wasting ingredients while testing and learning the ideal proportions in certain recipes, try a commercially available gluten-free flour mix, recommends Lipton, who says you can count on better results.
Sweet rice flour
Sweet rice flour is a great option for salmon cakes, tempura, and shrimp patties. It’s made from sticky white rice and acts more like starch than flour. It can be used in place of breadcrumbs to bind and structure hearty dishes. As for the taste? “It’s like rice in flour form,” says Lipton, who recommends mixing it with other flours when baking, as a one-to-one swap won’t work. Many commercial mixes contain a mix of sweet rice flour, which isn’t exactly sweet, plus sorghum flour, xanthan gum, and more.
Related: 11 Sugar Substitutes for Baking
Brown rice flour
Richer in nuts than wheat flour, brown rice flour can be used in gluten-free flour mixes for bread, cakes and more. If you’re not a chemist, the best thing to do when baking with brown rice flour is to stick to prepackaged mixes.
Made from the mighty chickpea, chickpea flour can be very heavy on its own, warns Lipton. “Even in mixes, it’s not best for cakes or muffins because it makes baked goods heavier,” she says. However, if you go the hearty route, chickpea flour could come in handy. It’s perfect for Mediterranean flatbreads – just don’t expect a chickpea flour pizza to resemble the pizzeria cakes you know and love.
Like flour, mixed black bean can add volume and texture to recipes like brownies, says Lipton. But it can be difficult to mask the keen flavor and requires some trial and error – reason enough to stick with flourless recipes that already call for black beans as an ingredient.
Similar to corn starch, arrowroot is a starch that is used in place of wheat flour for thickening sauces or cake filling, if you wish. It’s gluten- and grain-free, has Lipton notes – and a great ingredient for paleo dieters looking to avoid cornstarch.
Tapioca flour or starch
Tapioca flour (also called tapioca starch) extracted from the cassava root is similar in function to arrowroot and corn starch: it is a thickening agent that can be used to add lightness and structure to baked goods when mixed with a combination of gluten-free flours. Unlike alternatives that are used to thicken sauces and sauces in hearty dishes, tapioca does not need to be heated.
Potato starch, which is also found in gluten-free flour mixes, is a thickener that is lighter than almond flour. It has a heartier taste than arrowroot which is even lighter and therefore Lipton’s preference for most uses.
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With a slight sweetness and a more neutral taste than buckwheat flour, for example, oat flour is a good substitute for flour in many cases. It is important for people with gluten sensitivity to buy certified gluten-free oatmeal, as the grains are often grown in the fields alongside wheat and are contaminated with wheat. You can also buy certified gluten-free oatmeal and mix them into flour if necessary.
If you’re using oatmeal as a breading, add extra salt and seasoning to make up for the extra sweetness, and avoid using oatmeal instead of all-purpose flour to thicken sauces. “The taste and texture would be weird,” says Lipton.
As for the correct proportions when baking, Lipton wouldn’t suggest one on one. “It’s better to start with a mix than try to mix and match,” she says. “Baking is different from making a salad dressing, which you can go back to and fix.
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Guiding the way to thrive
Jan Juc naturopath Rebecca Winkler has always found joy in the practice of cooking nourishing meals for others.
That pastime spilled over into developing recipes and it was during lockdown that her culinary passion led her to become a qualified plant-based chef and a raw dessert chef.
Now the mum-of-two has expertly thrown all of her skills into the mix to achieve a long-held goal of producing a book.
Released as an eBook, with a print version to hopefully follow, 14 Day Whole Food Feast is a comprehensive two-week meal plan designed to nourish the body and delight the tastebuds.
Within its pages are recipes for whole food snacks, lunch and dinner meals, lunchbox ideas, and time-saving tips.
14 Day Whole Food Feast by Rebecca Winkler is available now as an eBook.
“My motivation was both personal and professional,” Rebecca says.
“On a professional note, I found so many patients were having difficulty finding family-friendly, whole food recipes to help them navigate various dietary needs.
“The recipes are easy to follow, a shopping list is provided and time frames are taken into account so slower cooked meals or more time-consuming recipes are saved for weekends.”
Rebecca says the eBook can function purely as a recipe resource or be followed meticulously for a 14-day reset.
“Food prep guidance is given at the start of each week in order to get ahead and be organized as possible.
The eBook includes lunch, dinner and snack ideas, as well as shopping lists and naturopathic advice.
“Dinners are often incorporated into leftovers for lunch the next day and naturopathic guidance is provided around ways to maximize your time by incorporating regular exercise and practicing self-care.”
The idea for the book began to brew in 2019 during a solo trip Rebecca took with colleagues which gave her the space to establish a clear vision for the content she wanted to share.
“I began developing and refining recipe, enlisting a beautiful photographer and graphics team to allow my dream to be realised.
“The long-term plan is to release a number of other eBooks and, eventually, print a hard copy, real-life book to be loved and to splash your chocolate and bolognaise sauce on. The kind of recipe book that you find yourself grabbing time and time again.”
The eBook is filled with nutritious recipes and much more.
So, what are some of Rebecca’s personal favorites featured in her carefully curated eBook?
“Ooh, that’s like trying to choose a favorite child,” she laughs.
“I know it might seem boring, but the slow-cooked bolognaise with hand-made gluten-free fettucine is an absolute favourite.
“We make it weekly in my house and every time my kids exclaim ‘this is the best bolognaise ever’.”
The slow cooked beef pie, kafir lime chicken balls and whole food cranberry bliss balls are also hard to pass up, she says.
Rebecca avoids listing ideal ingredients for people to incorporate into their diet, instead saying the most beneficial ingredients are those that make you feel at your best.
“Not everyone tolerates grains, some don’t tolerate fruit, others have difficulty digesting meat and protein.
“My advice is to listen and take note of how your body feels when you eat.
“Are you bloated, do you have pain in your gut, loose stools, headaches or fatigue?
Rebecca is a qualified naturopath, as well as being a plant-based chef and raw dessert chef.
“I am more inclined to advise people to source good quality ingredients, grow what they can, and cook from scratch as much as time and money allows.
“Eat three meals a day and snack only if you are hungry, growing, pregnant or exercising.
“Try to consume 30-35ml of water per kg of body weight. Add plenty of vegetables, fresh herbs, variety and colour.
“Our gut flora thrives on variety, so mix up your veggies, fruits, grain, legumes and proteins. Eat the rainbow.”
To get the most out of the eBook, the author suggests reading it from cover-to-cover and choosing a 14-day period where you are at home and have minimal social engagements.
Rebecca is passionate about naturopathy which she describes as a holistic, comprehensive view of the body in its entirety and “a wonderful adjunct to Western Medicine for patients as it ensures medical due diligence is exercised, adequate diagnostic testing where appropriate and an individualized approach to restoring health”.
Rebecca’s advice is to “eat the rainbow” when it comes to healthy food choices.
She says many of her clients are seeking ways to regain optimal health following extended periods of lockdown during the pandemic.
“There is no doubt that most of us found ourselves allowing more in alcohol and comfort foods over lockdown, which is nothing to feel ashamed about.
“In such a difficult, confining and overwhelming time, we sought comfort where ever it may lie for us.
“This is not a failure, it was merely a way for so many to cope. I never judge anyone’s choices, I merely try to support, understand and listen.
“Often we already know what we need to do to rebuild or move forward, simply sharing and being heard without shame or judgment is therapeutic.
“I cannot describe to you the genuine joy that seeing people thrive provides.”
14 Day Whole Food Feast retails for $19.95 and on the Rebecca Winkler website. Discover more and contact Rebecca via her Facebook page, Instagram @rebeccawinklernaturopath or email [email protected]
Get to know farro and other superfood whole grains
By Casey Barber, CNN
Quinoa has reached a level of superfood status not seen since the great kale takeover of the aughts. Equally embraced and mocked in pop culture, it’s become the symbol of the grain bowl generation. It’s not the only whole grain that’s worth bringing to the table, however.
The world of whole grains is wide, and if quinoa and brown rice have been the only grains on your plate, it’s time to expand your palate. Here’s an introduction to whole grains, along with tips for cooking and enjoying them.
What’s a whole grain?
The term “whole grains” encompasses all grains and seeds that are, well, whole. They retain all their edible parts: the fiber-rich outer bran layer; the carbohydrate-rich endosperm center, which makes up the bulk of the grain itself; and the inner core, or germ, which is packed with vitamins, protein and healthy fats.
On the other hand, refined grains such as white rice and all-purpose flour have been milled to remove the bran and germ, stripping away much of the fiber, protein and vitamins, and leaving only the starchy endosperm.
“A lot of people don’t realize that whole grains contain several grams of protein in addition to vitamins and antioxidants,” said Nikita Kapur, a registered dietitian nutritionist in New York City. With every serving of whole grains, “you get a ton of minerals, B vitamins and fiber, which is especially important for good health.”
So-called “ancient grains” fall under the umbrella of whole grains, though the phrase is more of a marketing term than a marker of a more nutritious option. Ancient grains refer to whole grains like millet, amaranth, kamut and, yes, quinoa that have been the staple foods of cultures for several hundred years. They are not hybridized or selectively bred varieties of grains, like most modern wheat, rice and corn.
And though quinoa has gotten all the press as a whole grain superfood, there’s good reason to try others. Trying a variety of whole grains isn’t just a way to mix up your same-old side dish routine. It’s also a chance to get a wider portfolio of minerals and more into your diet.
“Suffice to say, we need to have a more diverse plant-based diet” to get the full complement of recommended nutrients in our meals, Kapur said, “and we can’t get it from the same 10 or 20 foods.
“One grain might have more manganese, another more zinc or magnesium, and another more protein,” she added. “Try one as a pasta, one as a porridge — you do you, as long as there’s a variety.”
Familiar foods like oats, corn, brown and other colors of rice, as well as wild rice (which is an aquatic grass), are all considered whole grains, but there are many others you’ll want to add to your regular repertoire.
Some whole grains to get to know
amaranth is a tiny gluten-free grain that can be simmered until soft for a creamy polenta-like dish, but it also makes a deliciously crunchy addition to homemade energy bars or yogurt bowls when it’s been toasted. To toast amaranth seeds, cook over medium heat in a dry pan, shaking frequently until they begin to pop like minuscule popcorn kernels.
Buckwheat is gluten-free and botanically related to rhubarb, but these polygonal seeds (also called groats) don’t taste anything like fruit. You might already be familiar with buckwheat flour, used in pancakes and soba noodles, or Eastern European kasha, which is simply toasted buckwheat.
Faro is the overarching Italian name for three forms of ancient wheat: farro piccolo, or einkorn; farro medio, or emmer; and farro grande, or spelled. The farro you typically find at the store is the emmer variety, and it’s a rustic, pumped-up wheat berry that’s ideal as a grain bowl base. Or make an Italian-inspired creamy Parmesan farro risotto.
Freekeh is a wheat variety that’s harvested when unripe, then roasted for a surprisingly smoky, nutty flavor and chewy texture. Freekeh’s taste is distinctive enough that it steals the spotlight in your meals, so use it in ways that highlight its flavor. It’s fantastic in a vegetarian burrito bowl paired with spicy salsa, or in a warming chicken stew.
kamut is actually the trademarked brand name for an ancient type of wheat called Khorasan, which features large grains, a mild taste and tender texture. It’s a good, neutral substitute for brown rice in a pilaf or as a side dish. Or try this high-protein grain in a salad with bold flavors like arugula, blood orange and walnut.
millet is a gluten-free seed with a cooked texture similar to couscous. Teff is a small variety of millet that’s most frequently used as the flour base for Ethiopian injera flatbread. Try raw millet mixed into batters and doughs for a bit of crunch, like in this millet skillet cornbread recipe, or use either teff or millet cooked in a breakfast porridge.
How to cook any whole grain
While cooking times vary for each grain, there’s one way to cook any whole grain, whether it’s a tiny seed or a large, chewy kernel: Boil the grains like pasta.
Bring a large pot of water to a boil and add a handful of kosher salt. Add the grains and cook, tasting as you go, until tender. Small grains like amaranth and quinoa can cook fully in five to 15 minutes, while larger grains like farro and wild rice can take anywhere from 30 minutes to one hour — so keep an eye on your pot and check it frequently.
Drain well in a mesh strainer (to catch all those small grains) and either use immediately or allow to cool slightly, then refrigerate for later meals. Cooked whole grains can also be portioned, frozen and stored in airtight bags for up to six months.
If you want to cook your whole grains in an Instant Pot or other multicooker, this chart offers grain-to-water ratios for many of the grains mentioned here.
The CNN Wire
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Casey Barber is a food writer, illustrator and photographer; the author of “Pierogi Love: New Takes on an Old-World Comfort Food” and “Classic Snacks Made from Scratch: 70 Homemade Versions of Your Favorite Brand-Name Treats”; and editor of the website Good. foods Stories.
Travel: A quaint county seat with Mayberry charm | Lifestyles – Travel
I finally ventured out for my first road trip of 2022 earlier this month. It’s been way too long since I took a little trip and it was long overdue. My last little getaway was in Chicago the week of Christmas. The day I returned I wasn’t feeling very well and an at-home test confirmed that I had COVID — again.
The first time was in November 2020 and it was a severe case that landed me in the hospital with pneumonia and difficulty breathing and then many months of recovery. Luckily this time around it just lasted a couple of weeks. At the same time I was pushing through COVID we were in the process of moving. And my Dad, who had tested positive for COVID not long before me, passed away. So, it’s been a heck of a start to 2022. A getaway was much needed.
It was a brief 24 hours in the Indianapolis area, but as always I packed a bit in and had a lot of good food. On our way down we stopped off in Rensselaer for lunch at Fenwick Farms Brewing Co. and took a little walk to check out the murals that are part of the Ren Art Walk. That evening I attended a media opening of the newly reopened Dinosphere exhibit at the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.
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It’s a place I adore and still enjoy visiting even though my kids are teenagers and young adults now. I love being greeted by the huge Bumblebee character on the way in from what is probably my favorite action move, “The Transformers.” The largest children’s museum in the world has so much to see and I’ve loved having the chance to explore it both with and without my kids.
After the event it was a quick overnight at Staybridge Suites in Plainfield, and in the morning we headed to Danville. Danville is the county seat of Hendricks County. I adore county seats with downtown squares and this is one of my favorites. On an earlier visit there we were in town for the Mayberry in the Midwest festival, which had lots of activities related to the classic TV show “The Andy Griffith Show” that was set in the fictional town of Mayberry.
Danville definitely has that charming, inviting, friendly small town vibe that feels like it could be a sitcom setting. We ate at the Mayberry Cafe where old episodes play on television screens and the menu is full of down-home, made-with-love comfort foods, with a specialty being “Aunt Bee’s Famous Fried Chicken.” I tried it and it was very tasty. The whole place made me smile like Opie after a fishing outing with his dad.
This time our dining destination was The Bread Basket. I had tried their desserts at a few events, but it was my first time dining in. It’s located in a house that was built for the president of Central Normal College in 1914 and is cute and cozy. It’s a breakfast and lunch spot, so plan to go early and be prepared for a wait during peak times (but it’s well worth it).
My Dilly Turkey Sandwich on fresh wheat nut bread with an Orchard Salad was delicious. I loved that they had a combo option where you could pick a half sandwich and half salad or cup of soup. But the desserts are the real star here. I stared at that dessert case for several minutes — and I wasn’t the only one.
I was seated next to it, and watched intently each time they removed a pie or cake from the case to cut a slice. I tried the Hummingbird Cake, which was a perfect treat without being too rich, and then noticed another that was so unique I had to get a slice to take home — the Blackberry Wine Chocolate Cake. If you go there and are overwhelmed with choices, go with this. You won’t regret it.
After lunch, we made our way over to the Hendricks County Historical Museum & Old County Jail, which is just off the square. For someone like me who loves history, this was a wonderful stop to incorporate into our day. It was built in 1866 and used as a jail all the way up until 1974. You can go into the old jail cells (two on the female side and four on the male side) and tour the sheriff’s home.
An exhibit has information and artifacts from when Central Normal College existed (later Canterbury College). There’s also a temporary chronological exhibit about music and musicians, featuring many Hoosier hitmakers.
After the visit, I took a breezy little walk around the square, where I was reminded that there is a nostalgic old movie theater. The historic Danville Royal Theater dates back to the early 1900s and shows current movies for just $5 a ticket.
It was then getting close to dinner time, so we decided to eat before we headed back home. A place in the nearby town of North Salem had been recommend to me and I am so glad we took time to visit. I chatted for a few minutes with Damiano Perillo, owner of Perillo’s Pizzeria. He’s a native of Palermo, the capital of Sicily. The food is authentic and almost all of it is made fresh daily, including their garlic rolls, marinara and alfredo sauces. The New York-style pizzas are perfection.
They even have a nearby garden where they grow many of the fresh vegetables and herbs used in their dishes. They have gluten free pastas, too, and the lady at the next table had some and was raving about it. We also tried the homemade Sicilian cannoli and the limoncello flute, and trust me when I say to definitely not skip dessert.
There was one last food stop. Although we had just eaten, I realized we’d be driving right by Rusted Silo Southern BBQ & Brewhouse in Lizton and just couldn’t pass it up. I made my husband pull in and pick up some food to go. We got the brisket and their house made pimento cheese, chorizo and kielbasa and took it home. I was introduced to it last fall and there is a reason they have been voted Best BBQ in the Indy area four years in a row. I loved hearing about how this eatery located next to a railroad literally stops trains in their tracks to get food from this award-winning BBQ joint.
All three of these places — The Bread Basket, Perillo’s Pizzeria and Rusted Silo are ones that you should absolutely include in your itinerary if you happen to be in the Indianapolis area.
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