According to Professor Dr. Apichart Vanavichit, Director of the Rice Science Center in Thailand
Riceberry Rice: Genetic Potential for Wellbeing
This is now a decade of the most famous riceberry rice for its super nutrient with a great whole grain rice aftertaste. The result of a cross between the famous Thai jasmine rice and a photoperiod-insensitive purple rice, riceberry rice is a long, slender purple grain with a non-sticky and distinctive aroma. So far, riceberry rice has successfully convinced consumers to change their minds by enjoying the enjoyment of the meal and the nutritional benefits of pigmented whole grain rice. Eating whole grains can be a sustainable solution to reducing the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in modern lifestyles.
Riceberry Bran & Oil: Source of chemoprotective potential against noncommunicable diseases
As the world population grows exponentially to nearly 10 billion people in 2050, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as obesity, diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) will become more common. T2D has grown rapidly from 6.5% in 2015 to 10.7% in 2030, with the largest increase seen in the elderly (72%). There are strong links between eating high glycemic index foods, a sedentary lifestyle, and noncommunicable diseases (1).
Rice bran contains different flavonoid pigments in different compositions, which are responsible for the many color nuances of the rice. Due to their higher concentrations of proanthocyanins, red and purple rice have, respectively. The concentrations of bound phenols and flavonoids make up about half the concentrations of light brown rice, but are lower than those of purple and red rice (2).
Purple rice bran contains mixtures of peonin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside anthocyanin that help give purple, blue, and red colors to pigmented rice. The bran is also rich in other compounds, including fiber, proteins, lipids, phytosterols, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and anthocyanins. Additional compounds – polyphenol, tannin, and catechins in riceberry rice were three to ten times higher than in regular brown rice. Most impressive are the high vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B9 in dark purple rice berry bran. It is noteworthy that per 100 g of riceberry rice there are 48 µg of folate (vitamin B9). Chemoprotective compounds have become the subject of research to discover new functional roles in reducing the risk of NCDs for consumers.
Chemical extraction of rice berry bran reveals unusual chemoprotective compounds, including beta-carotene and lutein, that white rice is lacking. Apigenin, phytosterols, and triterpenes such as lupeol confer chemoprotective properties on human cell lines including Caco-2 (colon cancer) and MCF-7 (breast cancer), with the most notable effects being seen on the HL-60 cell line (3). Gramisterol specifically has been shown to prevent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and protect the dysfunctional immune system of leukemic mice (4).
In addition to cancer prevention, studies show that supplementing rice berry bran (up to 41%, w / w) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet can reduce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation, as by effects proven on biochemical parameters such as blood sugar and insulin levels. It is believed that these are the effect of increased antioxidant levels on insulin tolerance and decreased B-cell apoptosis, which subsequently improves liver and pancreatic function (5).
Although rice bran contains 8-10% oil, it is a significant source of highly fat-soluble antioxidants such as gramisterol, gamma-oryzanol, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and lutein. Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for heart disease and a symptom of many metabolic disorders, including diabetes and obesity. Studies have shown that the use of rice berry bran oil (RBBO) increases levels of higher density lipoprotein (HDL or good cholesterol) and decreases levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL or bad cholesterol) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A specific study showed that after 12 weeks, RBBO significantly lowered malondialdehyde and restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, coenzyme Q10, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) levels in diabetic rats (6).
Pathways to Socio-Economic Impact
While most of the research has been done on the bench, the socio-economic benefits of riceberry rice are undeniable. Organic Purple Rice contains an unprecedented 81 antioxidants, and as the medical research field expands, there is the potential to use these in a therapeutic context – moving it from a nutraceutical to a first-line treatment. Over 66 products have been developed from riceberry rice. As of 2013, Riceberry rice products saw sales increase from 2013, outperforming Thai Hommali Rice (THM) between 2017 and 2021. The riceberry farmer is selling an average of 10-20 THB more per kg of riceberry-winning rice. The return on investment for this farmland is estimated at 6,500 Thai Baht (THB) per rai, with average benefits of 32,500 THB per season. ($ 1,354 per hectare). Overall, the return on research investment has been estimated at around 600 million Thai Baht.
With its appealing taste and vivid purple color, and previous extensive research into its biochemical properties and potential medicinal benefits, Riceberry products are so successful in the marketplace. To date, there are 65 research projects, 39 patent applications and 18 approved patents focused on riceberry rice. In 2019, Kasetsart University selected the integrated rice berry projects as the winner of a platinum award for top performance in socio-economic impact in Thailand. Non-communicable diseases like type 2 diabetes and its cohorts are the main beneficiaries of riceberry rice. However, as mentioned earlier, there is still a lot of work to be done to develop an effective and tasty nutritional supplement that complements the current nutritional therapy approach. Riceberry rice has made a significant impact on product innovation, the economy and Thai society and promises to combine organic farming with healthy foods and cosmetic products now and in the future.
Riceberry Rice: The Next Step
To keep pace with increased demand, riceberry rice needs to be genetically improved in terms of productivity and nutrient density to reduce production costs and make riceberry rice more accessible to lower-income populations. We incorporate riceberry rice into diet therapy programs to prevent NCDs and rejuvenate your metabolic syndrome. To prevent insulin insensitivity, cardiovascular disease, colon cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the aging population, new low glycemic index and high antioxidant riceberry rice is being developed. In order to develop new bio-enriched and cosmetic products, colorful rice berry bran was actively converted into functional ingredients in research.
These projects were supported by the NSRF through the Program Management Unit for Human Resources and Institutional Development, Research and Innovation (Grant No. B16F630088).
- Rice Science Center & Rice Gene Discovery, (2017), Riceberry | Riceberry, [Online], dna.kps.ku.ac.th available at: https://dna.kps.ku.ac.th/index.php/research-develop/rice-breeding-lab/riceberry-variety [Accessed: 16 November 2019].
- Min, B., Gu, L., McClung, A., Bergman, C. & Chen, M. (2012). Free and bound total phenol concentrations, antioxidant capacities and profiles of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins in whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.) of various bran colors. Food Chemistry, 133 (3), 715-722. Available at: doi: 10.1016 / j.foodchem.2012.01.079 [Accessed: 14 November 2019].
- Leardkamolkarn, V., Thongthep, W., Suttiarporn, P., Kongkachuichai, R., Wongpornchai, S. & Wanavijitr, A. (2011). Chemopreventive properties of the bran, which is obtained from a newly developed Thai rice: the riceberry. Food Chemistry, 125 (3), 978-985. Available at: doi: 10.1016 / j.foodchem.2010.09.093 [Accessed: 16 November 2019].
- Somintara, S., Leardkamolkarn, V., Suttiarporn, P., & Mahatheeranont, S. (2016). Anti-tumor and immune-boosting activities of rice bran gramisterol in acute myeloid leukemia. PloS one, 11 (1), e0146869. Available at: doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0146869 [Accessed: 16 November 2019].
- Prangthip, P., Surasiang, R., Charoensiri, R., Leardkamolkarn, V., Komindr, S. & Yamborisut, U. et al. (2013). Improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation in steptozotocin-induced diabetic rats given a high fat diet with rice berry supplementation. Journal of Functional Foods, 5 (1), 195-203. Available at: doi: 10.1016 / j.jff.2012.10.005 [Accessed: 16 November 2019].
- Posuwan, J., Prangthip, P., Leardkamolkarn, V., Yamborisut, U., Surasiang, R., Charoensiri, R. & Kongkachuichai, R. (2013). Long-term supplementation of highly pigmented rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L.) for the relief of oxidative stress and histological changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet; Riceberry Bran Oil. Food Chemistry, 138 (1), 501-508. Available at: doi: 10.1016 / j.foodchem.2012.09.144 [Accessed: 16 November 2019].
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Do Grains Go Bad? Yes, But They Don’t Have To
AAre you someone who goes to the grocery store every time you want to eat pasta or rice, or do you stay stocked with your favorite cereal forever? If you’re resonating with the latter, we have some news that may have shocked you: grain goes bad – but how quickly it happens is up to you.
“Grains have a longer shelf life than most foods, which makes them one of the best foods to stock up on at home,” says New York-based nutritionist Jennifer Maeng of Chelsea Nutrition in Manhattan, noting that she has one Offer range of health benefits.
“Compared to refined grains, whole grains contain all parts: bran, endosperm and germs. If all these parts of the grain are left intact, they will be rich in nutrients such as B vitamins, minerals, fiber, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, antioxidants, phytochemicals, healthy fats, vitamin E, carbohydrates and proteins. “
Of these nutrients, she says the most notable is fiber. “The fiber contained in whole grain products slows down the breakdown of starch into glucose and thus prevents a high rise in blood sugar,” says Maeng. “Constant increases in blood sugar can negatively affect your energy levels, weight, and general health.”
Now that you know the benefits of storing grain in your kitchen, it is time to see the cons, too. Grains actually spoil and, thanks to their typical storage, can be a breeding ground for bacteria. Read on to find out more.
Does Grain Go Bad?
According to Maeng, the reason grain goes bad is because it is often stored incorrectly. With that in mind, she says grain should be stored in airtight containers (like OXO’s Good Grips POP storage containers) in a cool, dry environment.
“Whole grains can usually be stored (dry) for up to six months,” she says, noting that they can be kept for up to a year in the freezer. “Cooked whole grains can be stored in the refrigerator for four days and in the freezer for six months.”
Of all the grains there is, Maeng says that pasta, barley, brown rice, spelled, wheat, corn, farro, and rye are among the grains with the longest shelf life when dry.
And then there is white rice. “When properly (dry) stored, white rice can be stored for 25 to 30 years,” says Maeng. “As a study has shown, polished rice does not spoil and retains its nutritional and flavor profile for up to 30 years.”
Signs that your grains have gone bad
As with most foods, Maeng says you know your grains are spoiled if you notice a change in color, smell, or texture. “They tend to degrade in environments with a lot of humidity, heat, and temperature fluctuations,” she adds.
Speaking of changes in humidity and temperature, grains can serve as an abundant source of foodborne contaminants, according to the National Institutes of Health. “Unfortunately, whole grains usually have more pollutants than refined cereals, but they contain more nutrients that can combat these pollutants,” says Maeng. “The National Institutes of Health emphasize that despite an increased risk of contamination, the benefits of consuming whole grains outweigh the risk of contamination.”
Proper storage of grain
Remember: The best way to avoid spoilage and foodborne contamination is to properly store your grain. While dry and cooked grains require different storage solutions, Maeng says that “both uncooked and cooked grains should not be stored in environments with temperature changes, as this creates condensation and increases the risk of food contamination growth.”
That said, learn how to store your grains below.
As mentioned earlier, airtight containers and dry, cool environments are best for dry grain storage.
“The best temperature for storage is 40 ° F,” adds Maeng, noting that rice stored at 70 ° F (with the help of oxygen absorbers) can be stored for years.
Cooked grains, on the other hand, have a much shorter shelf life. “Cooked grains that are stored in the refrigerator should be used within a few days, ideally three,” says Maeng, noting that they can be kept in the freezer for up to six months. “The shelf life of already cooked grain is much shorter than that of uncooked grain due to the addition of water and its role in microbial growth.”
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What’s the Best Diet for Runners? Nutrition Tips and More
Before shopping for groceries for running, it is important to understand the science behind it.
The three macronutrients that are important to your overall diet are:
In addition, a varied diet ensures that you are also getting micronutrients and antioxidants, which play key roles in muscle function and recovery.
Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy and are essential for long distance running.
When you consume them, your body breaks down dietary carbohydrates into their simplest form, the sugar, glucose.
Glucose is a vital source of energy for humans. This is because your body needs it to produce your cells’ energy currency called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1, 2).
During a run or exercise, your body can send glucose to muscle cells as an immediate source of energy. Any extra glucose in your bloodstream is sent to your liver and muscle cells to be stored as glycogen (1, 2).
During a run, your body first draws glucose from the blood to keep working muscles powered. When glucose levels start to drop, the body starts converting stored glycogen back to glucose through a process called glycogenolysis (1, 2).
Your VO2max is the maximum rate at which your body can consume oxygen while exercising, and it increases with higher exercise intensity.
This limits the oxygen available for energy production. As a result, your body engages in anaerobic (lack of oxygen) energy production that relies primarily on carbohydrates (3, 4).
When your exercise intensity increases, e.g. For example, when running and sprinting over shorter distances, your body uses carbohydrates as a primary source of energy and fat as a secondary source (2, 3, 5).
Because of the shorter duration of a sprint, most people have adequate blood sugar and glycogen stores to support their run (2, 3, 5).
During longer, lower-intensity runs, your body increasingly relies on fat stores to produce energy. This can happen, for example, on runs longer than 10 km (6 miles) (3, 4, 5, 6).
Additionally, most long distance runners also need to fill up on simple sugars to keep their run going. This is why many long-distance runners consume sports drinks or energy gels (5, 6).
Eating around 45–65% of total daily calories from carbohydrates is a good goal for most runners (7, 8).
Stored body fat is another great source of energy, especially when running long distances.
In general, you should aim to get between 20% and 30% of your total daily calories from mostly unsaturated fats. Avoid eating less than 20% of your caloric intake from fat (8).
Low fat intake is linked to a lack of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids (8, 9, 10).
During long-lasting endurance training, your body falls back on its fat reserves as the primary source of energy.
It does this through a process called fat oxidation. Stored triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids, which your body then converts into glucose (1, 3, 5, 6).
While the process of fat oxidation is useful in long distance running, it is less efficient than using carbohydrates during high-intensity exercise. Because fat takes more time to be converted into energy, and that process also requires oxygen (8, 9, 10).
In addition, dietary fat is less efficient as a training fuel than carbohydrates, which are consumed very quickly and are more readily available during exercise (8, 9, 10).
So instead of consuming fat specifically for running, you should consume it as part of a balanced diet to support the functions of your body.
Dietary fat is crucial for:
- healthy joints
- Hormone production
- Nerve function
- General health
It also supports the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), making it an important part of your diet (8, 9, 10).
If you have stomach upset, eat low-fat meals in the few hours before running. Instead, try to eat higher fat meals during recovery periods (10).
Protein is not a primary source of energy during endurance training. Instead, your body supports (11, 12):
- Muscle growth and regrowth
- Tissue repair
- Injury prevention
- the production of oxygen-carrying red blood cells
- Total recovery
Your muscles break down as you run, which makes protein fueling important in rebuilding those muscles. Without protein, the muscles cannot be rebuilt efficiently, which can lead to muscle wasting, increased risk of injury and poorer performance (11, 12).
Although individual needs vary, most research suggests consuming around 0.6-0.9 grams of protein per pound (1.4-2.0 grams per kg) of your body weight per day.
This is sufficient for recovery and can prevent muscle loss in extreme endurance athletes (8, 10, 11).
Exercise puts a strain on your body’s metabolic pathways, so you need a diet high in micronutrients to support its function.
While every athlete has different needs, some micronutrients are particularly important (8):
- Calcium. This is a major contributor to bone health and muscle contraction. Most people get enough calcium-rich foods in their diet, including dairy products and leafy greens.
- Vitamin D. Vitamin D is important for bone health as it supports calcium and phosphorus absorption. It can also contribute to muscle metabolism and function. You can get it through sun exposure, supplements, and foods rich in vitamin D.
- Iron. This is critical to the development of red blood cells, which provide oxygen to working muscle cells. Long distance runners, vegetarians, and vegans may need more than the recommended food intake – more than 18 mg per day for women and 8 mg per day for men.
- Antioxidants. Antioxidants help reduce cell damage from oxidation from intense exercise. Eating foods high in antioxidants – like vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds – seems to be more effective than taking antioxidant supplements.
- Other nutrients and aids. Many athletes use supplements or consume foods to improve performance, such as beetroot, caffeine, beta-alanine, and carnosine. Some of these are backed by more research than others.
For most people, eating a variety of whole foods ensures that you are getting enough micronutrients.
If you think you have a deficiency or want to try a new nutritional supplement, speak to a doctor.
Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy during exercise. As you increase the distance and time of your runs, your body also begins to use stored fat for fuel. Prioritizing your diet can help improve your performance.
Good timing when eating can make all the difference in your runs. Your timing largely depends on:
- how long and far do you run
- your personal goals
- your tolerance
- Your experience
The best way to find out what works for you is through trial and error.
Diet before the run
Most people who run for less than 60 minutes can safely exercise without eating first. Even so, you may want to have a small, high-carb snack to provide a quick source of glucose. Examples are (13, 14):
- 2-3 Medjool dates
- Apple sauce
- a banana
- a glass of orange juice
- Energy gel
If you plan to run for more than 60-90 minutes, have a small meal or snack containing about 15-75 grams of carbohydrates at least 1-3 hours before your workout.
This gives your body enough time to digest your food (8, 13, 14, 15).
Examples of carbohydrates to eat are:
- a fruit smoothie made from milk and a banana
- Scrambled eggs and toast
- a bagel with peanut butter
Avoid high-fiber foods a few hours before running, as these take longer to digest and can cause stomach upset during exercise. Examples are whole grains, beans, lentils, and some vegetables.
After all, people who run for more than 90 minutes may want to recharge with carbohydrates a few days before an event.
This involves consuming a large amount of carbohydrates before a long distance run to make sure your body is storing as much glycogen as possible for quick energy supply (8).
While carbohydrate loading, many people attempt to consume 3.2-4.5 grams of carbohydrates per pound (7-10 grams per kilogram) of their body weight per day 36 to 48 hours before running. The best sources are complex carbohydrates like (8, 9, 10):
- Sweet potatoes
- Whole wheat pasta
- Brown rice
- Multigrain bread
- low fiber cereals
During your run
The only macronutrient that you need to focus on while running is carbohydrates. What you consume should largely depend on the length and intensity of your run.
Here are general guidelines you can follow for different run lengths (8, 9, 10):
- Less than 45 minutes. No high-carb foods or drinks are required.
- 45-75 minutes. You might want a high-carbohydrate mouthwash or small sips of a sports drink.
- 60-150 minutes. You may want to replenish your blood sugar level with 30-60 grams per hour of a sports drink or energy gel.
- 150 minutes or more. For long distance endurance runs, you may need to fill up with 60-90 grams of carbohydrates per hour. Most people prefer to stock up on high-carb sports drinks, gels, chewy candies, and bananas.
Whether you eat right after your run depends on the intensity of the exercise, the duration of the run, and your personal preferences.
If you want to eat right away, try a small snack with carbohydrates and proteins, such as chocolate milk or an energy bar.
Try to eat a meal that is high in carbohydrates and protein within 2 hours of your run.
Try to consume between 20 and 30 grams of protein. Research has shown that this can promote increased muscle protein synthesis.
Some examples of high protein foods are (8, 9, 10, 16):
- Protein powder (whey or vegetable based)
You should also replenish your glycogen stores by eating complex carbohydrates like whole wheat pasta, potatoes, brown rice, and whole grain bread, which provide a constant source of glucose for hours after your run (7, 8, 9, 15).
In most cases, food intake before, during and after the run depends on many personal factors. Try out some of these pointers and tweak them as needed to see what works best for you.
The benefits of fiber | 2021-09-21
The “Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025” state that more than 90% of women and 97% of men do not adhere to the recommended intake of fiber, and such deficits are associated with health risks. This is where fiber fortification in baked goods, a traditional source of intrinsic grain-based fiber, helps consumers get closer to their intake goals. While there is a lot of fiber in it, bakers may want to explore those that give the recipe a function, such as: B. those that can eliminate gluten in bread or reduce sugar in biscuits.
Family-owned and operated Royo Bread Co., New York, launches a low-calorie, keto-friendly artisanal bread that has 30 calories, 2 grams of net carbohydrates, and 11 grams of fiber per slice. Wheat-resistant starch is the first ingredient. Other sources of fiber include wheat protein, wheat bran, whole rye flour, ground flaxseed, and psyllium husk.
“Flax seeds are high in omega-3 fats and fiber,” says Ronit Halaf, a registered nutritionist who started the company in 2019 with her baker husband, Yoel Halaf. “Psyllium husks are an important part of all of our products. It contains soluble fiber and insoluble fiber that will help increase fullness, slow digestion, and most importantly, help you stay regular. Wheat protein, also called wheat gluten, is essential to keep our products together. It contains traces of wheat and is a rich source of fiber, vitamins and minerals. “
For Nature’s Path, Richmond, British Columbia, the focus was on eliminating added sugar in muesli. But ingredient technology also added fiber to it.
“People worry about the amount of sugar they’re consuming,” said Arjan Stephens, general manager of Nature’s Path. “Our new granolas contain 0% added sugar and are still 100% delicious.”
The muesli is available in vanilla-almond butter and mixed berry flavors, with each serving containing 17 grams of whole grain products. That doesn’t mean everything in fiber, however, as one serving only contains 3 grams. This still enables a high-fiber claim. The secret of the muesli’s sweet taste is its main ingredient: date powder.
“Dates are also high in fiber, which is great for digestive health,” said Stephens. “And their fiber content makes dates a low-glycemic food.”
While most Americans are aware that they need to consume more fiber and less sugar, it is not an easy task. You are not ready to forego quality and enjoyment.
According to a study by ADM Outside Voice, more than half of consumers associate fiber with benefits like digestive health. In addition, 56% of consumers report adding or increasing fiber to their diet, the Hartman Group reports in their report, Reimagining Wellbeing Amid COVID-19, 2021.
“However, added fiber can also be linked to digestive problems,” said Sarah Diedrich, Marketing Director, Sweetening Solutions and Fibers, ADM. “Our research has shown that almost 70% of consumers would stop buying a product if it caused gastrointestinal problems.”
This article is an excerpt from the September 2021 issue of Baking & Snack. To read the full fiber optic feature, click here.
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