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Latest Developments in Cancer Research and Treatment for July

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News keeps breaking in the cancer arena. Sometimes it’s big – like the news that a breakthrough drug increased the survival of a difficult-to-treat cancer. Sometimes it’s smaller. All of these can matter to you and your family as you plan your cancer journey. We do our best to keep you updated with a monthly round-up of some of the most important breaking cancer news.

More evidence that alcohol causes an increase in cancer

What’s new According to a population study published online July 13 in the journal Lancet Oncology, alcohol consumption accounted for about 4 percent of all new cancers worldwide in 2020.

Research details A growing body of evidence has linked alcohol consumption to an increased risk of cancer. In this study, the researchers evaluated the estimated global alcohol consumption, the risks of alcohol for certain cancers, and the global incidence of these cancers in 2020. The results showed that drinking contributed to 741,300 newly diagnosed cases of the esophagus, mouth, larynx, colon, rectum and liver and breast cancer. Moderate drinking (<.70 ounces per day) contributed to nearly 14 percent (103,100) of cases, while risky drinking (.70 to 2.11 ounces per day) contributed to about 39 percent (29,800) of cases, and heavy drinking (>2.11 ounces per day) contributed about 48 percent (227,900) of the cases. The highest incidence of cancers was observed in men, with most of the cases being esophageal cancer.

Why it matters Excessive alcohol consumption is increasingly identified as a major driver of cancer, but alcohol is also one of the most controllable cancer risk factors. People who drink excessively may want to speak to their doctors about strategies for reducing it, especially those with a family history of cancer.

TIED TOGETHER: 5 things that can harm your body if you drink too much alcohol

Close monitoring may be best for low-risk prostate cancer

What’s new The results of two studies presented at this year’s European Association of Urology Congress highlight the important role of close surveillance (also known as “active surveillance”), in which patients are regularly tested and diagnosed to determine the progression of their disease Monitor before invasively starting treatment in the treatment of low-risk prostate cancer, especially in men over 60. The data showed an improvement in the quality of life of these men and they had fewer sexual function problems that treatment may affect.

Research details In the first study, Swedish researchers developed a computer-based modeling exercise to examine the long-term safety of active surveillance in 23,649 men with prostate cancer. The results showed that only a small proportion of men over 70 died before age 85, including those diagnosed with very low, low, or medium risk prostate cancer. The greatest benefit was seen in men over 65 with low-risk prostate cancer. In the second study, Belgian researchers invited 2,943 men with prostate cancer, a mean age of 71, who were currently receiving treatment or had been in the past, to take part in an online survey. In the study, 71 percent of men who received more aggressive treatments (radical prostatectomy, radiation, radiation with hormone deprivation therapy) reported very poor to poor ability to achieve an erection, compared with 45 percent of men with active surveillance. Other indicators of sexual function were also better in men who were actively monitored.

Why it matters Depending on the age at diagnosis, active surveillance may be the best option for low-risk men with low-risk prostate cancer because it has the least impact on sexual function and little or no impact on the risk of dying from prostate cancer.

TIED TOGETHER: What is the prostate? A guide to form and function, and some common problems

Heart failure linked to a higher incidence of cancer

What’s new People with heart failure appear to have a significantly increased incidence of cancer, although researchers don’t know the exact reason for the association, according to a study published online June 27 in the ESC Heart Failure Journal.

Research details Between January 2000 and December 2018, German researchers examined the cancer incidence in 100,124 patients diagnosed with heart failure compared to 100,124 without heart failure. The median age of the participants was 72.6 years and 54 percent were women. During the observation period, the results showed that 25.7 percent of patients with heart failure were also diagnosed with cancer, compared with 16.2 percent of patients without heart failure. By type of cancer, patients with heart failure were about twice as likely to develop lip, mouth, or throat cancer, 91 percent more likely to develop respiratory cancer, and 86 percent and 52 percent more likely to develop genital cancer in women and men, respectively. Patients with heart failure also had an 83 percent higher incidence of skin cancer, a 77 percent higher risk of lymph and blood cancer, a 75 percent increased risk of digestive tract cancer, and a 67 percent higher risk of breast cancer.

Why it matters The data show a significantly increased incidence of many cancers in patients with heart failure. More intensive cancer screening may be appropriate for these patients, but patients should discuss a plan with their doctor based on individual risk factors and comorbidities such as diabetes and obesity, which also increase the risk of heart failure and cancer, as well as other lifestyle factors that lead to cancer Could contribute to cancer risk.

TIED TOGETHER: Food Rx: A cancer expert shares what he eats in a day

Plant-based diets have been linked to a reduced risk of breast cancer

What’s new Following a good quality plant-based diet can lower a person’s overall risk for breast cancer, regardless of body weight or intake of fiber or carotenoids (organic pigments believed to reduce the risk of the disease), according to a study published online in Cancer Epidemiology has been published. Biomarkers & Prevention.

Research details The researchers rated adherence to an overall plant-based diet index (PDI) consisting of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, and tea or coffee, a healthy PDI (hPDI) that included the previous list as well as fruit juices, sugar-sweetened beverages, refined cereals, potatoes, and candy; and an unhealthy PDI (uPDI), which also included animal fats, dairy products, eggs, fish or seafood, and meat in 76,690 women who participated in the ongoing Nurses Health Study (NHS) and 93,295 participants in the ongoing Nurses Health Study II (NHSII). Participants were asked to fill out food frequency questionnaires for the intake of the 18 food groups every four years. The incidence of breast cancer (self-reported every two years) was also checked. A total of 12,482 women developed invasive breast cancer. Women who reported consistently following a plant-based diet or a healthy plant-based diet had an 11 percent lower risk of breast cancer, regardless of their weight or their intake of carotenoids or fiber. Those who adhered to a plant-based diet the most had a 23 percent reduced risk of developing specifically more aggressive, ER-negative breast cancer. But women who consumed the most unhealthy version of the diet consistently had a 28 percent increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer.

Why it matters While previous studies suggest a link between a healthier diet and a reduced risk of breast cancer, the research findings have been mostly inconsistent. This study is extensive, and while based on self-reports that are fallible, it suggests that diet quality and consistency can provide important benefits in terms of reducing breast cancer risk.

TIED TOGETHER: 10 great cookbooks for anyone on a plant-based diet

Approval of a new combination therapy for advanced uterine cancer

What’s new The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reported full approval of the combination Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Lenvima (lenvatinib) for the treatment of advanced uterine cancer (also known as endometrial cancer), according to the drug manufacturers. The novel combination of treatments has been shown in clinical studies to shrink tumors and improve survival in women with a certain type of advanced uterine cancer that does not respond to systemic therapy and is not suitable for curative surgery or radiation.

Research details Full approval was based on a phase 3 study in a subgroup of 697 women who received 200 milligrams (mg) of Keytruda intravenously every three weeks for up to 35 cycles plus Lenvima 20 mg orally once daily or chemotherapy. Study participants had a certain type of advanced uterine cancer that is not associated with cancer cells that have high numbers of mutations in short sequences of DNA called microsatellites (also known as microsatellite instability-high) and not with Cancer cells have been linked that have mutations in genes that are involved in correcting errors in DNA copies (also known as mismatch repair deficiency). The results showed that women who took Ketruda-Lenvima had a 32 percent reduction in their risk of death and a 40 percent reduction in both the risk of disease progression and death (“progression-free survival.” “). The combination treatment also helped to partially shrink tumors in 28 percent of women, according to the manufacturer’s website.

Why it matters Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer in US women. When discovered early, it has an 81 percent survival rate, according to the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Only 17 percent of women with advanced uterine cancer survive the disease. In addition, women whose cancer is not eligible for curative surgery or radiation, or who progresses despite treatment, have few treatment options. The new combination of treatments is a promising strategy for women whose options have previously been limited.

TIED TOGETHER: FDA Watch: J&J vaccinations resume, counterfeit COVID-19 therapies, uterine cancer drug in fast-track trial, Brie cheese recalled over salmonella concerns

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Harness the power of the body’s hormones for better health

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When a hormone is out of whack, you can feel like you’re stuck in the mud or strapped to a runaway horse. Just ask someone with untreated Graves’ or Hashimoto’s disease (these are high or low thyroid levels), hypogonadism (low testosterone or estrogen deficiency), or uncontrolled diabetes. Because hormones are the chemical messengers of your body and have a direct influence on your metabolism, energy level, hunger, cognition, sexual function / reproduction and mood.

There are around 50 hormones in your body and many more hormone-like substances (brain neurotransmitters like serotonin and active vitamin D2 for example). Your pituitary is the “master gland,” it tells other glands to secrete hormones. The other hormone-producing glands are the pineal and adrenal glands, as well as the thymus, thyroid and pancreas – men also produce hormones in their testicles (testosterone) and women in their ovaries (estrogen, progesterone and testosterone). Aside, about 25% of testosterone in women is produced in the ovaries, a quarter in the adrenal gland and half in the peripheral tissue.

It only takes a tiny amount of a few hormones to make big changes in every inch of your body. Therefore, if they are out of whack, it can cause you serious problems. In America, type 2 diabetes is the most common hormone-related disease. This happens when you become insulin resistant and this hormone, which is produced in the pancreas, can no longer regulate blood sugar levels, causing a cascade of health problems from atherosclerosis to neuropathy to kidney disease.

Here’s how you can calm your hormones – and restore your health:

Eat Smartly. The endocrine glands are happy when you eat healthy fats like olive oil, avocado, nuts, and seeds; high fiber foods like fruits and vegetables; lean animal protein such as salmon; and plant-based proteins like 100% whole grains and legumes / beans. This mix of nutrients lets your appetite regulating hormones leptin (I’m full) and ghrelin (I’m hungry) signal you accordingly so you don’t overeat. Overeating and obesity regulate many hormonal systems.

In addition, a healthy diet will nourish your thyroid hormones, which also help regulate weight. Perhaps most importantly, a healthy diet regulates the work of trillions of microbes in your gut biome that help regulate hormone production and produce hormone-like substances.

Cope with stress, sleep peacefully. Cortisol is a hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stress. When chronically elevated, it can reduce the activity of your hypothalamus, which in turn can lead to imbalances in the messenger substances that affect sleep, eating, sexual activity, and cognition and mood. Then you can get tired and gain weight. Therefore, it is important to regularly exercise, meditate, take deep breaths, hang out with friends, volunteer to help others, and / or talk to a therapist. Healthy sleeping habits are also important for reducing stress and regulating hormones. Growth hormones, testosterone, cortisol and insulin are released during sleep. And studies show a link between chronic lack of sleep and depression and weight gain. For sleep hygiene information, visit DoctorOz.com.

Reduce Chronic Inflammation. Chronic inflammation occurs when your immune response is overstimulated to conditions that interfere with the peaceful functioning of your body. This can happen if you are overweight or obese, addicted to sugar and fast foods, smoke or drink too much, or are constantly under stress. These factors can trigger hormonal changes, such as insulin resistance, low testosterone and vitamin D levels, and increased cortisol, and they power your sympathetic nervous system, increasing your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and pupil size, and making your blood vessels narrow .

Plus: Eating healthy foods and managing stress and sleep will help reduce inflammation throughout your body and stabilize your hormones, but you can’t get real success if you’re sitting – 150 minutes or more of exercise per week is essential.

So make friends with your hormones and these powerful messengers will send you good news about your energy levels, sleep satisfaction, aging rate, and happiness.

Mehmet Oz, MD is hosting “The Dr. Oz Show,” and Mike Roizen, MD is the Cleveland Clinic’s Chief Wellness Officer Emeritus. For the healthiest way to live, tune in to The Dr. Oz Show or visit sharecare.com.

(c) 2021 Michael Roizen, MD

and Mehmet Oz, MD

King Features Syndicate

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Types of Millets And How Beneficial it is in Losing Weight

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Weight Loss Tips: Millet is an essential part of the whole grain family like rice, oats or quinoa. It is originally grown in Asia thousands of years ago. It’s gluten-free, filled with protein, fiber, and antioxidants. Millet is not only famous in India but has also gained in value in western countries.Read also – Weight Loss in Real Life: I was 104 kg, a visit to my daughter’s school changed everything

Millet is high in protein. It contains five grams of protein and one gram of fiber. Both of these ingredients help keep the stomach fuller for longer and reduce the snack habit between meals. This helps in shedding those extra pounds without compromising on your diet. Also Read – Weight Loss: Is It Safe To Eat Only Liquid Food When Losing Weight? Expert speaks | Exclusive

What Are The Health Benefits Of Millet?

Millet is high in antioxidants that help flush harmful radicals out of the body. It contains antioxidant components like quercetin, curcumin, ellagic acid, and other beneficial catechins. These help in eliminating toxins and neutralizing enzymes. It prevents health problems. Also Read – 6 Possible Reasons For Unexpected Weight Gain Explains The Nutritionist

Not only is millet very nutritious, it also has a good amount of fiber stored in it. It helps with digestion and prevents constipation, gas and acidity. It helps avoid digestive problems and prevents gastrointestinal cancer and kidney / liver problems.

  • Reduction of cardiovascular risks

Millet is high in and essential fats that help provide the body with natural fats. It also helps in preventing fat from being stored in the body. Along with this, it lowers the risk of high cholesterol, paralysis, and other heart problems. It contains potassium, which helps to keep an eye on blood pressure and increases blood flow.

What are the different types of millet?

Ragi is known for its iron content. It helps in the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It is high in calcium and potassium. Due to the high proportion of fiber, it keeps the stomach fuller for a longer period of time.

Jowar is loaded with nutrients like vitamin B, magnesium, and antioxidants like flavonoids, phenolic acids, and tannins. It helps boost metabolism and improves the quality of hair and skin. The presence of magnesium helps in strengthening bone and heart health.

Bajra is high in protein, fiber, magnesium, iron, and calcium. It’s low in calories and considered the best grain for shedding pounds. It keeps your stomach fuller for a long period of time without increasing your daily calorie count.

Amaranth is high in fiber, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron. It helps improve brain function and prevents certain neurological diseases. It helps build muscle and maintain digestive health. It is also noted that amaranth has more nutrients than quinoa.

Kangni is known as semolina or rice flour. It helps in strengthening the immune system and balancing blood sugar levels as it is high in iron and calcium. It also serves as a better option for shedding those extra pounds. It usually includes low cholesterol, good digestion, and helps in building good heart health.

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Adherence To a Mediterranean Diet Lowers Risk of Diabetes

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Author: Kenya Henderson, 2021 PharmD. Candidate, Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

The Role of the Mediterranean Diet: Eating a healthy diet and maintaining a healthy weight can potentially reduce the risk of developing diabetes for the US population.

A Mediterranean diet is one of the few healthy eating habits that has been linked to significant health improvements. It is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, legumes, and olive oil and is more common in European countries. It is recommended by the American Heart Association, the American Diabetes Association, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help reduce the risk of chronic disease. In addition, it is linked to a reduced risk of diabetes in Mediterranean and European countries. However, it is unclear that the Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing diabetes in the US population. In a large US cohort study with black and white men and women, this study investigated whether Mediterranean eating behavior is linked to the risk of diabetes.

This study was a prospective cohort study that included patients in previous research, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which looked at the causes of heart disease in over 400,000 adults in the United States. In this study, data were collected from 11,991 participants on their first visit. Participants were excluded if they were Asian or Indian due to the small sample size; were black and from Maryland and Minnesota, unable to decipher the influence of geographic region on race; if they have a history or history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes or cancer; or if they were derived from the answers to the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) or if they had ten or more missing FFQ elements.

One of the statistical methods was an FFQ questionnaire to record the food intake of each patient on their first and third visits. The data recorded from the survey was used in the scores for the Mediterranean Alternative Diet (aMed). The scores ranged from 0 to 9 points, with 1 point being awarded if the patient reported consuming vegetables, fruits, or legumes himself, and 1 point if the patient reported consuming red or processed meat. The higher the aMed score, the higher the adherence to a Mediterranean diet. They also used Cox’s proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios and confidence intervals for the associations between aMed scores and incidents of diabetes. Incidence diabetes was defined as: if the patient was diagnosed by a doctor, had taken diabetes medication in the past two weeks, had a fasting blood sugar of 126 mg / dL or more, or a non-fasting blood sugar of 200 mg / dL or above. Variables were also used in the Cox regression analyzes, including energy intake, age, gender, race, educational level, smoking status and physical activity, and clinical mediators of diabetes. They were all stratified by race and body mass index (BMI).

During a median follow-up of 22 years, this analysis found 4,024 cases of diabetes among the 11,991 participants. In summary, aMed scores and incidents of diabetes were higher in blacks than whites, but the risk of diabetes was reduced by up to 17% in both races. In addition, the associations between aMed scores and incidents of diabetes were found to be stronger in patients with a healthy baseline BMI, indicating that obesity or overweight outweighs the benefits of a healthy Mediterranean diet, as shown in the ARIC study and other U.S. Population. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that following a Mediterranean diet without weight loss may not reduce the risk of diabetes in overweight or obese populations. While following a Mediterranean diet could lower the risk of diabetes in people with healthy BMI, the discussion about restricting calories to achieve and maintain a healthy weight should remain one of the most important tasks of diabetes prevention. Overall, eating and following a Mediterranean diet lowers the risk of diabetes in a community-based US population, especially for black and normal weight individuals. Future studies should be conducted to determine whether a Mediterranean diet that results in clinically meaningful weight loss can reduce the future risk of diabetes in those who are overweight or obese.

Practice pearls:

  • Diets high in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and olive oil have been linked to a lower risk of developing diabetes in the US population.
  • There are stronger associations between adherence to the Mediterranean pattern and incidents of diabetes among blacks compared to the US white population.

O’Connor, LE, Hu, EA, Steffen, LM et al. Adherence to Mediterranean eating habits and risk of diabetes in a prospective US cohort study. Nutr. Diabetes 10, 8, (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41387-020-0113-x

Kenya Henderson, 2021 PharmD. Candidate, Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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