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Whole Grain Benefits

Orphan crop status rises to ‘super grain’

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Grains such as teff, millet and sorghum are mostly grown locally in certain African countries. Photo credit: Giulio Napolitano, Shutterstock

Cereal grains have been the main component of the human diet for millennia, with rice, wheat and corn being the most commonly consumed cereals worldwide. However, as the world population continues to grow, underutilized grain crops could help meet nutritional needs. Researchers are now investigating how African grain crops could be grown more effectively and spread more widely as a source of food.

Grains such as teff, millet and sorghum are mostly grown and consumed locally in certain African countries. However, there is interest in growing them in Europe and elsewhere as new sources of grain as they are very nutritious.

Teff grains, for example, are high in calcium, protein, and iron, and are almost five times higher than wheat or any other grain. This could be particularly beneficial in preventing iron deficiency anemia, which is common in women. They also contain carbohydrates that are slowly digested, which is great for people with diabetes to help maintain low blood sugar levels. In addition, most African cereals are gluten-free, so they can be consumed by people with celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome. “There are so many health and nutritional benefits,” said Dr. Aiswarya Girija, Research Associate at Aberystwyth University in Wales, UK.

In addition, many of these African grain crops can adapt to extreme weather conditions due to climate change. Yields of staple foods such as wheat, rice and corn are already affected by rising temperatures and are expected to continue to decline. Corn crops are expected to be hardest hit, where yields could decrease by as much as 7.4%. Traditional African crops could therefore become new alternatives to supplement this loss. “If you want to grow teff in a harsh environment like a drought-prone area, it will grow well,” said Dr. Girija. “It is also resistant to waterlogging.”

However, the cultivation of African grains needs to be improved if they are to be grown more widely. Wheat and corn, for example, are increasingly being grown by African farmers because they can obtain genetically engineered pest-resistant varieties, which saves pesticide costs. In addition, traditional African grain crops often produce low yields, mainly because they were not bred to improve productivity. “In Africa there has been a concern that traditional crops will be lost as farmers increasingly grow wheat and corn,” said Dr. Raija Lantto, researcher at the VTT Technical Research Center of Finland in Espoo.

Better farming practices could help. As part of the InnoFoodAfrica project, Dr. Lantto and her colleagues partnered with smallholders in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda to strengthen their farming skills, with an emphasis on educating women and youth. For example, they are studying how practices can be improved to increase crop productivity and new pest control strategies.

Research is also needed to better understand how to perfect the cultivation. Dr. Girija and her colleagues are working on Teff yields as part of the SUPERTEFF project and are investigating how these can be improved. One of the main problems is that teff plants that are long and slender often bend as they grow by kinking the stems or roots known as bearings. This usually happens before the grains are fully formed and therefore has an impact on yields. “It prevents the seeds from ripening and eventually results in poor semen quality,” said Dr. Girija.

The team will use CRISPR gene editing technology to try to address the problem. They target specific genes in the teff plant that are related to housing and deactivate them using a technique called knockout. You want to investigate whether this will affect storage or make the plant more resilient. “It’s quite a challenge because not a lot of genetic transformation experiments have been done with teff,” said Dr. Girija.

Another goal of the project is to screen the Teff genome to identify varieties with beneficial traits. Using metabolome and genome sequencing approaches, Dr. Girija and her colleagues try to filter out traits that are associated with a higher nutritional value or that can help the plant, for example, to cope with environmental stress. This will help find varieties that are best suited for breeding programs aimed at improving the quality of teff, which does not need to be done yet. “We are at the beginning of a long-term program that is developing new varieties and new approaches that we will roll out across Europe and North Africa,” said Prof. Luis Mur, Research Director for Biology and Health at Aberystwyth University and a member of the project team.

So far, Dr. Girija and her colleagues are studying the mechanisms that enable teff to tolerate drought. They performed experiments on 11 different strains of Teff using metabolomic techniques that identified and quantified the amounts of various small molecules and chemicals in plant tissues. Their results showed that different strains of teff have different amounts of flavonoids – metabolites that are known to help plants protect themselves against various stresses such as pathogens or drought. They were able to identify a strain that was able to maintain the same levels of flavonoid under severe drought conditions. The results of this study could help select tolerant varieties that can be grown in countries with extreme environmental conditions, says Dr. Girija.

In addition to improving crops, another challenge will be introducing African grain into people’s diet. InnoFoodAfrica has set itself the goal of developing prototypes of new foods that contain traditional crops such as finger millet, sorghum, teff, broad bean and amaranth. “Meals have to be ready-to-eat or easy to prepare, and they have to be affordable,” said Dr. Lantto.

So far, members of the team based in Africa have developed various flours from the leaves and grains of these plants. The flours were then shipped to Europe for analysis using advanced technologies, for example to determine their nutritional value. The team aims to show that these plants can be converted into other forms while maintaining their high nutritional value. The project partners have already developed foods such as whole wheat pasta, baked goods and crackers from the flours.

Dr. Lantto and her colleagues are also interested in finding uses for all parts of these plants. Seed coats, leaves and straw, for example, are currently thrown away or fed to animals. But they could be made into bio-based plastics that can be used as food packaging. “The food that people grow in the fields can then be better protected from the weather and pests and stored more easily,” says Dr. Lantto. “So this project also has a circular economy dimension.”

The team is working to collect more data on the unused parts of these plants. You need to analyze the content to confirm whether it is suitable for making bio-based packaging, for example. In addition, they plan to quantify the amount of waste material in different locations to assess whether there is enough of it for commercialization. “That knowledge doesn’t exist at the moment,” said Dr. Lantto.

Dr. Lantto hopes that InnoFoodAfrica’s food knowledge will help both European and African entrepreneurs develop new edible products that can be sold internationally. The team plans to create a virtual platform where they can share what they have learned during the project.

Introducing new nutritious foods, especially in urban areas of Africa, could help. Obesity and unhealthy eating habits are a growing problem on the continent as people often consume a lot of fast foods that are high in fat and sugar. “We have to make sure that the knowledge is carried forward after the project,” said Dr. Lantto. “When Africans can keep and multiply these traditional crops in their cultivation [yields] it could help to resolve the deteriorating nutritional situation. ”

Little Millet’s Great Potential Provided by Horizon: The EU Research & Innovation Magazine

citation: The status of the orphaned harvest rises to “super grain” (2021, August 16), accessed on August 16, 2021 from https://phys.org/news/2021-08-orphan-crop-status-super-grain. html

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Whole Grain Benefits

How to live longer: Whole grains can boost longevity Introduction

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In recent years, supermarkets have struggled to meet demand for healthier foods after the evidence of healthy eating increased. Fruits and vegetables are often revered for their endless benefits, but in recent years other foods have also proven to be buffers against a number of ailments. There is a growing line of research highlighting the health benefits of consuming whole grains and their potential longevity effects.

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Doctor Qi Sun, associate professor at Harvard Medical School, stated that a whole-grain diet is also “linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and certain types of cancer.”

The study was based on nutritional information from more than 100,000 men and women followed for more than 20 years.

Participants who replaced one serving of refined grains per day with whole grain products reduced their risk of death by eight percent over the study period.

Research suggests that the longevity effects are due to the compounds, particularly fiber, magnesium, vitamins, and phytochemicals.

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Dietary guidelines recommend eating at least three servings of whole grains a day, with a survivor reducing the overall risk of death by 5 percent.

A serving of whole grains is equivalent to 28 grams or 1 ounce, that’s three cups of popcorn, one cup of whole grain muesli or a slice of whole grain bread.

In addition, the results showed that the risk of death was reduced by 20 percent during the study period if a daily serving of red meat was replaced with whole grain products.

Sun said, “If you really look at whole grain consumption with other diseases, stroke, heart disease, and colon cancer, whole grains are consistently associated with lower risk for these diseases.

“Half of the grains that a person consumes every day should come from whole grain products.”

David Jacobs, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Minnesota School who was not involved in the study, commented: “[The study] showed, as some other studies have shown in several other contexts, that consumption of whole grains is associated with reduced all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease, but not particularly strongly associated with mortality from cancer.

“It is a very difficult thing in nutritional epidemiology to separate such things and make certain statements.”

The researchers also explained that whole grains have a lower glycemic index, meaning they result in less increases and decreases in blood sugar, and explain how the food might protect against type 2 diabetes.

The Mayo Clinic notes that unrefined whole grains are a superior source of fiber when compared to other nutrients.

The health authority recommends adding them to your diet by “enjoying breakfasts that contain whole grains, such as whole bran flakes, whole wheat meal, or oatmeal”.

“Replace plan bagels with wholegrain toast or wholegrain bagels,” it continues. “Bring sandwiches with whole grain bread or rolls.”

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Whole Grain Benefits

Tom Brady reveals he doesn’t ‘eat much bread’ and experts say it can keep you young

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Tom Brady isn’t a fan of bread, but that didn’t stop him from becoming a Subway spokesperson.

The six-time NFL Super Bowl champion confirmed his new partnership with the global sandwich chain in an Instagram post he shared with his 10.1 million followers on Sunday.

“As this new commercial will tell you, I don’t eat a lot of bread, but at the end of the day I know size when I see it,” he wrote.

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Brady, 44, shared his strict anti-inflammatory diet that excludes white flour, sugar, and gluten – key ingredients found in most commercially made breads. While the NFL quarterback allegedly avoids bread to keep his digestive system in tip-top shape, it turns out that scraping bread off can help you look and feel young.

Registered nutritionist Maryann Walsh of Walsh Nutrition Consulting told Fox News that some carbohydrate-free guests report having more energy throughout the day. report that they have more energy throughout the day.

“Consuming large amounts of bread or refined carbohydrates can cause blood sugar spikes, followed by a blood sugar drop that makes you feel sluggish,” said Walsh. “By eliminating or significantly reducing bread, it can help some experience more sustained blood sugar levels, resulting in more sustained energy levels.”

She added, “Blood sugar spikes from overeating can accelerate aging, as Advanced Glycation End Products (aptly named AGEs) accelerate aging. AGEs are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to undesirable accelerated skin aging and joint inflammation, and an increased susceptibility to diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. “

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Tom Brady, 44, shared his strict anti-inflammatory diet that excludes white flour, sugar, and gluten - key ingredients found in most commercially made breads.  (iStock)

Tom Brady, 44, shared his strict anti-inflammatory diet that excludes white flour, sugar, and gluten – key ingredients found in most commercially made breads. (iStock)

Aside from potential energy and longevity, Walsh said avoiding bread could contribute to an overall leaner figure.

“Since bread is an important source of carbohydrates, it can cause water retention in the body, which can make many feel bloated,” she said. “Carbohydrates turn into glycogen in the body, and glycogen normally holds two to three times its weight in water. Because of this, when people start a low-carb diet, they lose weight quickly when they start out because, in addition to losing fat, often they don’t hold on as much water . “

EXPERT CALLS BRADY’S DIET ‘SKETCHY’

It’s not clear if the Tampa Bay Buccaneers quarterback watched a fountain of youth from cutting bread, but Brady’s personal chef – Allen Campbell – told Boston.com that the NFL star is following an organic, gluten-free diet to keep his guts healthy maintain health.

“Gluten is the protein in bread that can ‘react’ with our immune system,” said registered nutritionist Caroline Thomason in an interview with Fox News. “In people who are sensitive to gluten and who experience negative reactions when they eat bread, gluten increases the inflammation in their bodies.”

Gluten is a protein found in various types of grain, including wheat, barley, and rye.

Gluten is a protein found in various types of grain, including wheat, barley, and rye.
(iStock)

She continued, “The symptoms of gluten intolerance can be insidious. These include rashes, indigestion, gas, headaches, and fatigue.”

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Other symptoms of gluten sensitivity include joint pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal issues, which she said can happen to people who have been diagnosed with celiac disease or not, according to Walsh.

“Gluten-free bread and pasta are available, but it’s important to note that just because a product is gluten-free doesn’t mean it’s low in carbohydrates,” said Walsh. “Anyone who hopes to feel better by doing without or reducing bread will want to enjoy gluten-free bread sparingly.”

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Jinan Banna, a nutrition professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, told Fox News that people who are not sensitive to gluten have little reason to avoid bread.

While there are benefits to not overeating, most people don't need to cut out carbohydrates or gluten to stay healthy.

While there are benefits to not overeating, most people don’t need to cut out carbohydrates or gluten to stay healthy.
(iStock)

“Bread is a source of carbohydrates that our bodies can use for energy, and it’s also rich in vitamins and minerals,” said Banna. “Whole grain bread also provides several grams of fiber per slice, which is important for digestive health, weight management, and maintaining heart health.”

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In addition to Brady’s bread- and gluten-free diet, the quarterback is also said to exclude selected vegetables from his diet for similar gut health reasons.

“Tom Brady is likely to exclude nightshades – tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, etc. – from his diet because they have also been shown to work with our immune systems,” said Thomason. “This is especially true for people with autoimmune diseases who are more prone to lower immune systems.”

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Brady’s representatives did not immediately respond to Fox News’ request for comment.

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Whole Grain Benefits

What Is Cellulose and Is It Safe to Eat?

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Cellulose is a fiber found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods as part of a plant’s cell walls. It occurs in tree bark and in the leaves of a plant.

When you eat plant foods, you are consuming cellulose. But you may not know that cellulose fiber is also being removed from plants to be used as an additive in many other foods and sold as dietary supplements (1).

This article provides an overview of cellulose, where it is commonly found and whether it is safe to consume.

Cellulose consists of a number of sugar molecules that are linked together in a long chain. Since it is a fiber that forms plant cell walls, it is found in all plant foods.

When you ingest foods that contain it, the cellulose stays intact as it travels through your small intestine. Humans do not have the enzymes needed to break down cellulose (1).

Cellulose is also an insoluble fiber and does not dissolve in water. When consumed, insoluble fiber can help push food through the digestive system and aid in regular bowel movements (2).

In addition to their role in digestive health, fiber like cellulose can also be beneficial in other ways. Studies suggest that high fiber intake may reduce the risk of various diseases, including stomach cancer and heart disease (3).

summary

Cellulose is an indigestible, insoluble fiber found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants.

Fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and other plant-based foods contain varying amounts of cellulose. The skin of plant foods usually contains more cellulose than the pulp.

Celery in particular has a very high cellulose content. If you’ve ever got stringy pieces of celery between your teeth, you’ve felt cellulose in action (4).

Cellulose is also a common food additive. In this use, it is obtained either from wood or waste from the production of plant-based foods such as oat shells or peanut and almond shells (1).

Other names for cellulose added to food include:

  • Cellulose rubber
  • microcrystalline cellulose
  • Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
  • microcrystalline cellulose

Cellulose can be added to grated cheese or dried spice mixes to prevent lumps. It’s also found in some ice creams and frozen yogurts, especially low-fat varieties, to thicken or blend the product and add thickness without fat (1).

Bread products can be fortified with cellulose to increase their fiber content. Additionally, cellulose can add bulk to nutritional or low-calorie foods like meal replacement shakes so that they become filling without adding to total calories (1).

It’s worth noting that fiber is generally added to many foods, even things like yogurt and ground beef. If you are interested to see if the products you have bought contain cellulose or other added fiber, check the ingredients list.

Finally, cellulose is available in the form of dietary supplements. Cellulose supplements often contain a modified version of cellulose that forms a gel in the digestive tract.

Manufacturers of these supplements claim that they will help you fill your stomach, lower your caloric intake, and promote weight loss (2, 5).

However, it is unclear whether cellulose preparations meet their requirements.

A manufacturer-sponsored study of the weight loss effects of the cellulose supplement Plenity found that people who took the supplement lost more weight than those who took a placebo after 24 weeks. However, further long-term studies are required (5).

summary

Cellulose is found in all plant-based foods and in the form of dietary supplements. It is a common food additive and is found in ice cream, grated cheese, and dietary foods, among others.

Eating cellulose – especially from whole fruits and vegetables, grains, beans, and other plant-based foods – is generally considered safe.

All of the possible disadvantages of cellulose are related to the side effects of consuming too much fiber. In general, if you eat too much cellulose, fiber, or take cellulosic supplements, you may experience:

  • Flatulence
  • Upset stomach
  • gas
  • constipation
  • diarrhea

Current dietary guidelines recommend that adults consume at least 25 grams of fiber per day from food, but may require more or less depending on age, gender, and personal needs (6).

If you are following a high-fiber diet or increasing your fiber intake, you should drink plenty of water to avoid unpleasant side effects. Exercise can also help.

Those on a low-fiber diet should limit their intake of cellulose. People with a health condition that affects the digestive system, such as: B. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) also need to watch out for cellulose in food.

Cellulose as a food additive is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The amounts of cellulose currently used in food are not considered to be hazardous to humans (7).

Keep in mind, however, that getting fiber from whole plant foods is usually better than getting it from additives or supplements. In addition to fiber, these foods provide many other beneficial nutrients and compounds.

Before adding any cellulosic supplements to your diet, it is best to speak with a doctor.

summary

Consuming cellulose from foods, supplements, or additives is likely to be safe for most people. However, too much of it can lead to side effects that come with excessive consumption of fiber such as gas, gas, and abdominal pain.

Cellulose is a type of fiber that forms the cell walls of plants. When you eat plant foods, you are eating cellulose.

Many other foods, from grated cheese to low-calorie or diet foods, have cellulose added to support various properties. Cellulose also exists in the form of dietary supplements.

It is generally safe to consume cellulose. However, if you eat too much cellulose or fiber, you may experience nasty side effects such as gas and gas.

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