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What is durum wheat? (And how the heck do I bake with it?)

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The perfect bread is a column by Maurizio Leo, a software engineer who has become a bread expert (and Food52’s Resident Bread Baker). Maurizio is here to show us everything that’s naturally leavened, fortified, yeast-risen, whatever – basically any vehicle to brush a lot of butter. Today, how to make a golden loaf of bread from protein-rich durum wheat flour.

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If you are a fresh pasta maker, chances are you are familiar with durum wheat. Although the type is most commonly used to make pasta, it is also an excellent choice to incorporate into bread. It is a durum wheat – hence the name durum, which is Latin for “hard” – and is so named because of the strength of the durum wheat berry itself, which requires considerable force to grind. The grain is high in protein, but the gluten quality in durum wheat flour does not have the same gas trapping properties as conventional wheat. That means when using even finely ground durum wheat flour. The resulting bread has a firmer, more cake-like crumb or internal structure that is similar to a whole wheat loaf (as opposed to a super light loaf with large internal holes like a country loaf). Although there are visual and structural differences to a loaf of durum wheat bread, no compromises are made: the color, aroma and aromas of durum wheat are very noticeable when used in bread and result in a more rustic loaf that is nevertheless delicious.

I’m happy to share a few tips that I found helpful when using finely ground durum wheat in bread making. But let’s first clear up the common sources of confusion: If durum is typically used in pasta, what is the difference between durum flour for bread and semolina, the coarse durum wheat?

Durum flour versus semolina flour

In the market you will undoubtedly see packets of semolina, with its great yellow color and sandy texture. Like durum wheat flour, semolina is made from durum wheat. The difference between the two lies mainly in the texture: durum wheat flour is ground very finely, while semolina is ground more coarsely. When you rub semolina through your fingers, it feels more like beach sand or fine breadcrumbs; Durum flour feels powdery and fine, like most other flours in your pantry.

Groats are mainly used in pasta production because they make a pliable, elastic and easy-to-work dough that can be rolled, re-rolled and cut. If you use the same coarse semolina in bread, you get a very gritty batter that doesn’t quite come together and an extra dense loaf.

Finding durum wheat flour that is suitable for making bread can be a challenge, especially here in the United States. However, more and more millers are now offering it in their range, and the flour can be ordered online from suppliers such as King Arthur Baking Company, even in large quantities. If you purchase durum wheat flour for bread, however, make sure that it is specifically labeled as “finely ground durum wheat flour”, “extra fancy durum wheat” or “semolina rimacinata” (which means double-ground semolina).

Left: semolina; Right: durum wheat flour or semolina rimacinata. Photo by Maurizio Leo.

How to bake bread with finely ground durum wheat flour

Go all-in or mix it up with a traditional wheat

While it is possible to bake fantastic bread with 100 percent durum wheat flour, I prefer to mix durum wheat with traditional wheat in varying proportions. The advantage of mixing, as with bread with other flour combinations, is that you get the best of both worlds: a bread with more volume and an open interior than hard cheese, but with the golden tint, sweet and nutty taste and aroma – somehow on freshly made pizza reminds – that comes with the use of durum wheat.

After some testing, my preferred sweet spot is 25 to 35 percent durum wheat to total flour in the recipe (for example, if the recipe contains 1000 grams of flour, I would suggest 250 to 350 grams of durum wheat). With this ratio, your bread has an amber crust and a yellowish crumb, but the bread is light, airy and structurally satisfactory to eat. When testing, I increased the durum to 75 percent based on total flour, which worked fine, but the resulting bread was firmer inside, with a moist but cake-like texture (but still delicious!).

Increase your hydration

Bread dough made with finely ground durum wheat can usually absorb more water than the equivalent amount of conventional whole wheat flour. In developing my recipe for rustic Italian sourdough bread, I slowly increased the moisture content from bake to bake until the dough felt sufficiently hydrated by the end of mixing.

If you are using durum wheat, expect your dough to potentially require more water than a typical mix. As always, be conservative with dough hydration and work up the added amount of water slowly. A dough with a moderate to high percentage of durum wheat can quickly go from feeling properly to overhydrated, resulting in a loaf with a lackluster rise and a possibly rubbery internal texture.

A longer autolysis

If you use durum, you will find that your dough is usually very strong and stiff. Due to the high protein content of the grain and the properties of the proteins that make up durum itself, the dough becomes firm and elastic. To compensate for this, I usually do a lengthy autolysis – where the flour and water in a dough recipe simply sit before adding the salt and preference or levain – to give the dough some much-needed stretchability.

Think of stretchability as sort of the opposite of elasticity: where an elastic dough resists stretching, a stretchable dough continues to stretch before snapping back or tearing. The added stretchiness of the dough helps it expand further during fermentation and gives the loaf space and openness as it rises during fermentation.

While it’s likely that the increased ductility is mainly due to the softening of the traditional wheat in the recipe rather than the durum wheat itself, for such a simple step, it’s an easy way to add volume to the finished loaf of bread.

Embrace the rustic crust

A hallmark of using durum wheat flour in bread is the rustic charm of the crust, created by seemingly random cracks here and there on the outside of the loaf. If it’s baked at a high temperature for longer, as I do in my rustic Italian sourdough recipe, the result will be a vibrant, amber-colored crust contrasted by light gold cracks where the dough is scratched.

While I usually see these cracks as a problem with insufficient scratch depth or amount, they blend in beautifully with the overall aesthetics of this rustic bread. A loaf that screams at the dining table to be torn by hand, with less claim and more on nutrition and taste.

Mix gently

I like to think that using durum is a way of channeling breadmakers from a time before the advent of mechanical mixing. In my experience, you could put the dough in a mechanical mixer for a few minutes, but if the dough is mixed by hand, bread with a moderate proportion of durum wheat bakes with a higher rise and a lighter internal structure. Mixing by hand also ties in wonderfully with the history of the grain itself, which has been used to make all kinds of pasta and bread for thousands of years, all without any mechanical help. Ultimately, durum wheat flour helps naturally create rustic breads that are as beautiful to look at as they are delicious.

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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

What Causes Bloating and How to Get Rid of It, From an RD

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That tight, stuffed, stretched feeling in your lower abdomen that feels like you’ve swallowed a balloon? That’s gas, and it has likely happened to all of us since a study found that 19 percent of people say they’ve had gas on a regular basis.

But what causes gas and how can we eat to relieve it or avoid it altogether? There are foods that will help fight gas and others that will help. Here’s what science tells us about gas and its relationship with diet.

Technically, gas or gas occurs when air or gas enters our gastrointestinal tract (the entire digestive system from our mouth all the way down to our rectum), and it can create a feeling of fullness that is uncomfortable and can even cause you to feel bloated our stomach expands.

While some of us are more prone to gas than others, there is a reason for it and useful tips to get rid of it other than just putting on our stretchy pants and waiting.

What Causes Flatulence?

One of the main causes of gas is an accumulation of gas, typically after a meal. This gas is created by swallowing excess air. According to the International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders, air swallowed can occur for many reasons, including:

  • Post-nasal drip
  • smoking
  • Eat too fast
  • Chewing gum or sucking on candy
  • Dentures that don’t fit properly

There are also certain foods that can produce more gas than others when eaten. Most of the time, these are foods rich in carbohydrates, as protein and fat generate less gas. Complex carbohydrates are harder for your body to break down because of the types of sugars and other compounds they contain. These include:

  • Raffinose, lactose, fructose, and sorbitol (all naturally occurring sugars)
  • Starches (except rice)
  • Fiber that is actually healthy and shouldn’t be avoided

The reason for these gas-forming compounds is that we either lack the enzyme to break them down or, in the case of insoluble fiber, we cannot break them down at all. For example, lactose (which is found in dairy products) requires an enzyme called lactase to be fully digested. People with lactose intolerance do not produce enough of this enzyme, which leads to gastrointestinal discomfort when they consume foods containing lactose such as milk, cheese, ice cream or dairy products. In another example, high fiber foods like celery or cruciferous vegetables pass through our digestive system intact, which is normal and healthy, but in the gut, our bacteria try to break it down, causing it to ferment and form gas – since our body’s healthy gut bacteria feed on like from this type of fiber.

The following foods are most likely to cause gas, according to the International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders.

  • Beans (including chickpeas and all legumes)
  • Vegetables like artichokes, asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and onions
  • Fruits like apples, pears, peaches, bananas, plums and apricots
  • Whole grains and bran
  • Carbonated drinks
  • milk and milkproducts
  • Foods that contain sorbitol (a type of sugar alcohol)

How to Avoid Flatulence Avoiding all gas-forming foods completely is not the right way, as these foods also contain important nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that are beneficial for immunity, gut health, and disease prevention. Instead, it’s best to locate a specific food (or group) that could be causing your gas and remove those items one at a time to see if it helps.

Other causes of gas

According to John Hopkins Medicine, you might have a condition that makes you more prone to gas and gas, and if your gas is common, painful, or interferes with your daily activities, you should see a doctor who can work out whether you could have irritable bowel syndrome or a food allergy or autoimmune disease. Flatulence is also caused by:

  • constipation
  • Gluten intolerance or celiac disease
  • Gastroparesis (delayed emptying of the stomach)
  • Bacterial Overgrowth in the Small Intestine (SIBO)

Prevent flatulence with the FODMAP diet

The good news: you don’t have to deal with gas all the time, but it will take some effort on your part to prevent it. According to the International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders, bloating can be prevented by changing your diet and reducing the amount of air swallowed.

When it comes to making a change in diet, the FODMAP diet is a great way to find out which foods are puffing you up. FODMAP stands for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols. John Hopkins Medicine says these are all short chain sugars that our small intestines often cannot absorb properly, causing indigestion like gas and gas.

A low FODMAP diet works by following 3 steps. They include:

  • Stop eating foods high in FODMAP for approximately 2 to 6 weeks
  • Reintroduce them slowly, one at a time, to see what is bothering you the most
  • Once you’ve figured out which ones are problematic, you can avoid them while enjoying the other foods that don’t cause gas

High FODMAP foods include the foods and low FODMAP foods listed above:

  • Almond milk
  • Grains like rice, quinoa, and oats
  • Vegetables with eggplant, potatoes, cucumber, tomatoes and zucchini
  • Fruits with grapes, oranges, strawberries, blueberries and pineapples

Gas could also be due to moving from a low-fiber diet to including too many high-fiber foods in your diet at one time. (For example, if you give up your usual junk food diet and suddenly start eating salads and grain shells.) While fiber is a beneficial nutrient, it should be increased gradually so your gut microbiome can switch to healthy bacteria if you do can easily tolerate the 21 to 25 grams of fiber per day recommended for women and 30 to 38 grams per day recommended for men.

To limit the amount of air you swallow, make sure you eat your meals slowly and avoid swallowing food, chewing gum, or making a habit of sucking on hard candy.

When should you see a doctor if you have persistent or painful flatulence?

Do not take flatulence with a grain of salt. Sometimes it can indicate a serious underlying health problem. According to GI Associates & Endoscopy Center, you should see your doctor as soon as possible if you have any of the following symptoms along with persistent gas:

  • Bloody stool or vaginal bleeding: This could indicate ovarian cancer. Rush University states that persistent gas and feeling “full” are some of the early signs of ovarian cancer that go undetected because women don’t know what to look for.
  • Diverticulitis: This is when pouches in the intestinal lining become infected or inflamed. This can lead to gas, abdominal pain, and fever. You need to get antibiotics as soon as possible to keep the infection from spreading, so call your doctor.
  • Ascites: This is when fluid builds up in the abdomen. Typically this indicates liver disease, but when gas is paired with jaundice (yellowing of the skin) it can also indicate liver cancer. If you ever have yellow skin, contact your doctor.
  • fever: If you are dealing with a fever, especially if it includes other symptoms such as gas, it usually means that there is inflammation or infection somewhere in the body. Your doctor will need to draw your blood to determine exactly what could be going on.

Bottom Line: Try dieting to treat gas, but if it persists, call your doctor

To prevent bloating, you will likely need to adjust your diet, avoid dairy products, and try to stick to the low-FODMAP diet.

Then add fiber one at a time to see if something you eat is causing gas or tenderness in your bowels. If you include tips on gas prevention and it continues or gets worse, it is important to schedule an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible.

The 13 Best Foods to Boost Your Immune System to Combat COVID-19 Symptoms

Here are the best foods to eat with repetition to help boost immunity and fight inflammation. And stay away from the red meat.

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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

When life hands you lemons, you make Keto cookies

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Rita DeMontis Lydia Girges, owner of Keto Kookie Co., started her hugely successful cookie company after losing her job in the pandemic Lydia Girges, owner of Keto Kookie Co., started her hugely successful cookie company after losing her job in the pandemic Photo by Hana El Zohiry Hez Photography /Keto Kookie Co.

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The pandemic has caused so much disruption on different levels – personal, financial, emotional and physical, not to mention health. Many people reported gaining weight, others struggling with weight problems took the opportunity to shed unwanted pounds.

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Lydia Girges lost weight during the pandemic after having great success on the high-fat, low-carb keto diet – but in ways she never could have imagined. The young Toronto-based entrepreneur who worked in the food, beverage, and events industries for years started the keto program in the year of COVID-19’s decline and was suddenly while she was happily shedding 50 pounds during the worst of the pandemic unemployed thanks to the virus.

Two losses in one – weight and job – got her into a Plan B and a successful new career as her own boss.

Your new business? Keto foods, especially keto cookies, and what started as a special diet treat she baked for herself has grown into a nationwide grocery store called Keto Kookie Co. that continues to grow every day. A business she started less than a year ago.

Cookies from Keto Kookie Co. Hana El Zohiry Photo / Hez Photography Cookies from Keto Kookie Co. Hana El Zohiry Photo / Hez Photography Photo delivered by /Keto Kookie Co.

“In the past eight months, transitioning to this new role at my company has been extremely exciting, rapid, challenging … and humbling,” Girges said in a recent interview.

“I actually kept working on all of the COVID challenges, even though many of the events I was involved in were canceled. But I lost my job last November. My last day of work was December 31, 2020. “

Girges says the initial loss of her career and source of income was “devastating. I was confused – we were experiencing a global pandemic that seemed to never end. And I wondered if I could ever go back to the work I loved. “

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The dedicated entrepreneur said she needed to “stay busy” and immediately began developing business ideas that would enable her to potentially start a new career, certainly a new role.

Enter Keto: “I had been on the keto program since 2019 and had lost 50 pounds. The program helped me lose weight and I honestly felt great. While this program is not for everyone, it has brought me many of the health benefits that I have been looking for. “

Girges admits that she recognized keto, with all of its food requirements, as “an emerging industry in Canada,” especially since it was sourcing foods that she could eat. “I wanted healthy foods that are appetizing and make you feel normal – and I’ve looked for these foods everywhere.”

And so it started. With cookies that she baked herself. Their cookies had a wonderful taste and texture but were made without sugar, gluten, grains and were GMO free.

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One can imagine Girges nibbling on one of her cookies while, with the help of a friend, hatches a business plan to create the same delicious, nutritious cookies for the masses. “I decided to take a leap of faith and start a small business until the world was up and running again and I could go back to work,” said Lydia. “My mission was to make healthy, organic, guilt-free cookies that were made from simple and clean ingredients, but also looked and tasted delicious.”

A business plan was drawn up while Lydia researched all about cookies. Recipes were tested, an Instagram account set up and the Keto Kookie Co. was born.

We apologize, but this video could not be loaded.

“The whole process took over two weeks to complete – over the holidays,” said Girges, still marveling at the speed with which she had started her company. At first, Girges just took orders, created the cookies, created a marketing plan, sourced and bought the ingredients, juggled the finances – and even delivered the cookies in person.

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To her surprise, when the news spread, business exploded and orders tripled. Well-known grocery stores, like Toronto’s iconic Summerhill grocery market, knocked on. Girges has started shipping biscuits across the country. And the orders from the grocery store came and came – all within a few months.

Girges couldn’t keep up on its own, so I found a professional kitchen, dedicated staff, including a baker and a delivery man. I am now looking for a pastry chef. “

Even their cookie selection has grown to include more than 25 innovative flavors, with a spinning repertoire that includes traditional favorites like chocolate peanut butter cups, citrusy coconut lime, milk and granola, to name a few – all post-keto -Program.

“That sounds a little crazy, but COVID … gave me the opportunity to sit down by myself and say, ‘Why not?’ This should be a sideline until my work called me back. It is now my own company and I can only say that I am incredibly happy and blessed to have this opportunity. “

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Her future looks bright and bright – business is booming and Girges is looking to expand into grocery stores and supermarkets across the country.

“It’s amazing what you can do when faced with adversity – I lost my job to COVID,” said Girges. “I feel so happy now. And really blessed. “

https://www.instagram.com/ketokookieco/https://www.facebook.com/Keto-Kookie-Co @ketokookieco; #ketokanada

With keto. keep pace

The insane search for the best weight loss program left millions searching the internet for ideas and guidance. Keto, or the ketogenic diet, was one of the most popular searched by UK-based Jackandbeyond.com/collections, making it the most wanted weight loss program alongside Paleo.

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The high-fat, low-carb diet was crowned the most popular with the highest number of Instagram hashtags.

According to https://www.healthline.com, keto is a metabolic state in which the body uses fat for fuel instead of carbohydrates. “It is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that bears many similarities to the Atkins and (other) low-carbohydrate diets and involves a drastic reduction in carbohydrate intake and its replacement with fat. This reduction in carbohydrates puts your body in a metabolic state called ketosis, which allows the body to “burn calories for energy,” adds Healthline.

Keep in mind that this is not a one-size-fits-all program and there are several versions.

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Weeknight family dinners | Home & Garden

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Recently a meme was circulating on social media that said, “School is back in class, so we can have dinner at 4 or 9 pm.” As the parents of three children, two of whom are involved in several extracurricular activities, I was deeply impressed by this simple sentence. When it comes to meal planning, I spend far too much time figuring out what and when to feed my children and I would bet a lot of money that I am not alone in this fight.

In the past, extracurricular activities often took place right after school and there was little, if any, travel. The children could safely ride their bikes home from training, where they came with their family for a home-cooked meal around dinner. Unfortunately, a lot of this has changed in the last decade and family meals are almost obsolete. Instead of slowing down and reconnecting over a leisurely meal, many parents desperately hand out burgers and fries in the car to over-scheduled children, wondering how life got so hectic.

How many people do I miss these seemingly simpler times and often wonder how other families deal with the insane pressures and time constraints we are all under while eating nutritious meals. At the beginning of each school year, I ask my friends what they feed their families for dinner. I ask them to share their simplest recipes, and I hope that one of them will give me some advice that will make me feel like this huge, meal-centered puzzle has been solved. Instead, I often get answers that reflect my own dinner dilemmas and groans at the impossible task of feeding people who all have different schedules.

I turn to Google a lot for advice, but instead of feeling like things have been simplified, I am faced with hundreds of “simple” meals that make me feel completely overwhelmed. Also, many of these online recipes during the week are heavily based on meat that can be cooked in a slow cooker for hours. This is a great option if your family is a carnivorous bunch, but when you’re trying to cut down on the amount of meat you consume, these recipes won’t always be very helpful. Realizing that my family’s needs were not being met by my online searches, I decided to create a few meals that were easy to prepare and based on easy-to-find, real-life ingredients.

Below are some incredibly delicious meals that are in heavy rotation at home. They can be cooked ahead of time, require minimal cooking and prep, pack a hefty nutritional value, and can be customized to please everyone who gathers around my kitchen table. Leftovers are rare, but when they do, all of these meals keep well in the refrigerator and travel well in the school lunch box.

The first (and probably my family’s favorite) meal is sesame noodles. Here, cooked soba noodles (or whole grain spaghetti) are paired with soy sauce, mirin, toasted sesame oil, and sliced ​​green onions. This dish is served immediately, but served cold, with slices of cucumber or fried vegetables, makes it even more delicious. These noodles never get mushy and the longer they sit, the better the taste. So they’re a great option if you have kids who come and go at different times.

Another dinner at our house is something my family affectionately refer to as “stuff on a plate”. This meal originated when I was pregnant with my son and my morning sickness was so severe that the thought of cooking something rolled over me in huge waves of nausea. My husband was working in a different city at the time, and I knew that if I didn’t want my little daughters to survive for months on top of cold cereal, I had to come up with something that we could throw together in no time and that would keep me far away Stove.

Stuff on Plate is exactly what it sounds like. It’s basically a lazy mezza and a carefree sausage. I usually like to make a large serving of homemade hummus (it’s easier than you think!), Reheat some pita, and search the fridge and cupboards for anything that needs to be used. That random half block of cheddar cheese hanging in the crisper? Cut it into cubes and toss the stuff on the plate. The apple someone took a bite of and tossed back into the fruit bowl? Halve, throw the half eaten part to the squirrels and shape the good half into apple slices. Other foods that go well with Stuff on a Plate are olives, nuts, and lightly steamed vegetables. But honestly, just use the foods your family loves to eat. This is an all-time crowd-pleaser, and if you serve it on paper plates with tiny toothpicks, everyone will think you’re a total rock star.

The last simple weekday meal I want to share with you is soup. My husband likes to make fun of me because I could easily eat soup every day, even if it’s unbearably hot outside. I firmly believe that dinner will always end up being effortless and enjoyable when you have some great soup recipes in your pocket.

In the summer, when the garden vegetables are at their peak, I love making a giant pot of minestrone, a versatile, delicious soup that highlights any seasonal vegetable. I love adding beans or chickpea noodles to my minestrone for a little protein and extra nutrition because they add incredible flavor and texture, but they are completely optional.

In winter I make all kinds of meatless stews, chowders and bisques. These soups are creamy, hearty, and incredibly filling. Plus, they’re wonderful to freeze and reheat, which means that when you double your recipe you’ll always have a stash of soup on hand, just waiting to be reheated and served with a crusty bread or crunchy green salad .

If you’re on a break from cooking, I recommend giving some of these simple meals a try. They’re perfect for busy families looking to find easy ways to enjoy the benefits of stress-free family meals.

However, don’t be too strict with yourself when you pull into the drive-through from time to time. We all do our best, and sometimes there’s nothing like a hot, salty french fry.

Sesame noodles (for 4 people)

Ingredients:

¾ pounds of soba noodles or whole wheat spaghetti

Cup of regular or low-sodium soy sauce

3 tablespoons dead

3 tbsp toasted sesame oil

3 spring onions, thinly sliced

Preparation:

Cook the pasta according to the instructions on the packet.

While the pasta is cooking, stir together the tamari, mirin, and toasted sesame oil in a large bowl.

When the pasta is ready, drain, rinse with cold water and add directly to the bowl with the sauce; throw to combine.

Cover the sesame noodles with sliced ​​spring onions and serve.

Simplest, creamiest hummus

Ingredients:

1 can of chickpeas, drained; Reserved liquid

¼ cup tahini

1 clove of garlic, chopped

Juice of 1 lemon

Salt (optional)

Preparation:

Place the drained chickpeas, tahini, and garlic in a food processor and blend until the ingredients blend. Slowly add the reserved chickpea liquid until the mixture reaches the consistency you want. Add lemon juice and salt (if used) and serve.

You can also top this hummus with sliced ​​cucumber and halved cherry tomatoes. Drizzle with olive oil and serve with warm pita slices.

Lana Shovlin is a freelance writer who lives in Springfield with her husband and three children, all of whom love to eat vegetables. Always trying to choose healthy foods, she wholeheartedly agrees with Julia Child that when it comes to meals, “You don’t have to cook fancy or complicated masterpieces – just great food made from fresh ingredients.”

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