We all know junk food is bad for us. But how bad? A new study provides more evidence that a diet high in fried foods and sugary drinks can literally kill you. In the study, a “southern” eating pattern was shown to be particularly harmful to health. In fact, this diet is so dangerous that those who adhered to it most closely were almost twice as likely to have sudden cardiac death than those furthest away from it, as we originally learned on Medical News Today. Published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, it is safe to say that the results are staggering.
“The [research] investigates the association between a southern diet that includes higher consumption of fried foods and sugary beverages with sudden cardiac death, a leading cause of death in the United States, ”explained Rachel McBryan, RD, a member of the Dietitians of Canada who helps people wise Make dietary decisions when faced with medical problems that require dietary changes, especially people who are finding it difficult to change their eating habits. “In a study of the effects of the Southern Diet, it was found that 46 percent of participants were at higher risk for heart disease than their counterparts.”
McBryan further breaks down the research, stating that the observational study analyzed data from 21,069 African American and Caucasian adults over the age of 45. “33 percent of the volunteers were black, 56 percent were women, and 56 percent lived in the Southeast, United States,” she continued, noting that this area is known as the stroke belt because of the number of related deaths since the 1940s with strokes than any other place. The researchers examined five different dietary patterns for their study:
- The convenience patternconsisting of takeaway food including pizza, Chinese food, Mexican food and pasta.
- The vegetable pattern, which was high in fruits, vegetables, and legumes, as well as yogurt, chicken, and fish.
- The candy patternin which people consumed large amounts of sweets, chocolate and sugary cereals.
- The southern pattern, in which people ate a diet high in fried foods, sweetened beverages, processed meat and offal, and eggs.
- The alcohol and salad pattern, made up of people who consumed an abundance of leafy greens, dressings, tomatoes, and alcoholic beverages.
After reviewing participants’ data, the researchers gave each individual a score that reflected how closely their eating patterns resembled the Mediterranean diet, a way of eating plenty of plant-based foods, with an emphasis on vegetables, fruits, beans, whole grains, nuts, and herbs , as well as fish. The main finding is that a score reflecting adherence to a Mediterranean diet was linked to a decreased risk of fatal heart attack, while a dietary pattern in the south was linked to an increased risk of fatal heart attack, says Dr. Glenn Gaesser, Ph. .D., Professor of Exercise Physiology at Arizona State University and a member of the Grain Foods Foundation’s Scientific Advisory Board who has authored or co-authored several books, including Big Fat Lies: The Truth About Your Weight and Your Health and It’s the Calories Instead of Carbohydrates ( his research focuses on the effects of exercise and diet on cardiovascular fitness and health). McBryan says following a Mediterranean diet was linked to a 26 percent reduction in cardiovascular death risk.
How unhealthy is fried food?
As this research shows, if you want to live a long, healthy life, it’s damn bad. “Fried foods contain trans fatty acids from the hydrogenated vegetable oil in which they are cooked, which in turn can trigger an inflammatory reaction. People who ate fried foods one to three times a week had a 7 percent increased risk of heart attacks and strokes compared to those who ate it less than once a week, ”McBryan quotes this study.
Deep frying foods can increase the calorie density of the foods and contribute to excess energy intake, she says. “It can also contribute to oxidative stress. Many fried foods like fried chicken and french fries are high in sodium, which has been linked to cardiovascular disease, ”continues McBryan. To protect your health, you should avoid fried foods. For the plant-based set, we speak of french fries, vegan onion rings, fried “chicken” or vegetable canapés and the like.
How unhealthy is sugar?
Surprisingly, in the present study, a “sweet” diet pattern was not associated with an increased risk of fatal heart attack, and the “sweet” diet pattern included desserts, chocolate, sweets, sweetened breakfasts, and added sugar, says Gaesser. “In fact, those who had a history of coronary artery disease were associated with the ‘sweet’ eating pattern with a lower risk of fatal heart attack,” he says. “That contradicts popular opinion, but that is what this study has shown. Even the “convenience” diet pattern of pizza, pasta, Mexican and Chinese food was not associated with the risk of fatal heart attack, ”he continues, noting that these confusing results are largely due to the limitations of epidemiological research This is due to the fact that participants self-report their food intake and the inability to fully consider the contribution of other factors that could also affect the risk of a fatal heart attack.
The study also found some other interesting results related to sugar. “The results of the” candy “nutritional pattern suggest that sugar itself may not be a problem for heart health. This also applies to sugar-sweetened drinks, ”says Gaesser. “Although the Southern diet was associated with an increased risk of fatal myocardial infarction across the study cohort, the Southern diet when analyzed separately for participants with or without a history of coronary artery disease was no longer significant at risk of a fatal myocardial infarction when other variables are controlled that could also influence the risk of a heart attack. “
Despite the atypical results of this new study on sugar, experts agree that added sugar in your diet can have devastating effects on your health. McBryan points to a JAMA study that showed those who consumed more than 10 percent but less than 25 percent of their total calories from sugar had a 30 percent increased risk of cardiovascular disease, while those who did 25 percent or more of the calories consumed from sugar of their day tripled their risk. “An observational study also showed that excessive consumption of sugary drinks contributed to higher blood sugar,” says McBryan.
So how much sugar is too much? “The American Heart Association recommends no more than 100 calories [daily] come from [added] Sugar for women and 150 calories from sugar for men. The main sources of added sugar in the American diet are sweetened beverages (37.1 percent), cereal-based desserts (13.1 percent), fruit drinks (8.9 percent), dairy desserts (6.1 percent), and sweets (5.8 Percent). ”The sugar naturally occurring in fruit and vegetables is not taken into account in this recommendation.
Gaesser summarizes these somewhat contradicting results from the current study and other research: “The bottom line: It is difficult to determine a certain food as ‘the’ cause of heart problems. Numerous other lifestyle factors influence heart health. “
Plant-based diet and heart health
Speaking of going herbal can be a huge win for your heart. “There is extensive research showing that a plant-based diet is associated with good heart health,” says Gaesser, referring to this 2019 study. “Plant-based diets are rich in antioxidants and phytochemicals that promote vascular health and reduce risk heart attacks, ”he explains, adding that a plant-based diet has been linked to improvements in key risk factors for vascular disease.
McBryan agrees, as do countless health experts and numerous studies on the value of a plant-based diet in protecting your heart. “Other studies have shown that a plant-based diet can reduce the severity and risk of cardiovascular disease by preventing atherosclerosis,” says McBryan (for example this study). “Atherosclerosis is the build-up of hardened plaque or fat in the arteries that blocks blood flow to the heart. Increasing your intake of fruits and vegetables can lower LDL cholesterol and improve antioxidants such as polyphenols. “
Another recent study found that eating a healthy, plant-based diet with fewer animal products, processed foods, and added sugar was linked to a lower risk of stroke. And if you need even more persuasion, a study last year found that in addition to red and processed meat, a diet high in chicken consumption was linked to an increased risk of heart disease.
If you’re not plant-based, it’s not too late to go fully plant-based or even become a Mark Bittman “part-time vegan”. “Improving your health is not impossible when you start to develop signs of heart disease. By switching to a Mediterranean diet and eating higher amounts of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes and lean proteins, you can protect your body from heart disease, ”says McBryan. Some great vegan sources of protein are beans, tempeh, tofu, nuts, and quinoa.
We don’t know about you, but we want to avoid becoming a statistic. Two bean burgers with avocados and a vegan Caesar salad made from kale and chard are about to arrive, friends.
The top 20 vegetables with the most protein
Anyone considering switching to plant-based products has the same question: where do I get my protein from? Simple answer: vegetables! Contrary to popular belief that you need to eat animal protein to get enough in your diet, one of the best ways to get protein is by eating vegetables. Animals provide protein because they are fed protein-rich plants. So if you leave out the middleman – or in this case the middle cow or chicken – you can get the same protein by going straight to the source.
What’s the Best Diet for Runners? Nutrition Tips and More
Before shopping for groceries for running, it is important to understand the science behind it.
The three macronutrients that are important to your overall diet are:
In addition, a varied diet ensures that you are also getting micronutrients and antioxidants, which play key roles in muscle function and recovery.
Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy and are essential for long distance running.
When you consume them, your body breaks down dietary carbohydrates into their simplest form, the sugar, glucose.
Glucose is a vital source of energy for humans. This is because your body needs it to produce your cells’ energy currency called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (1, 2).
During a run or exercise, your body can send glucose to muscle cells as an immediate source of energy. Any extra glucose in your bloodstream is sent to your liver and muscle cells to be stored as glycogen (1, 2).
During a run, your body first draws glucose from the blood to keep working muscles powered. When glucose levels start to drop, the body starts converting stored glycogen back to glucose through a process called glycogenolysis (1, 2).
Your VO2max is the maximum rate at which your body can consume oxygen while exercising, and it increases with higher exercise intensity.
This limits the oxygen available for energy production. As a result, your body engages in anaerobic (lack of oxygen) energy production that relies primarily on carbohydrates (3, 4).
When your exercise intensity increases, e.g. For example, when running and sprinting over shorter distances, your body uses carbohydrates as a primary source of energy and fat as a secondary source (2, 3, 5).
Because of the shorter duration of a sprint, most people have adequate blood sugar and glycogen stores to support their run (2, 3, 5).
During longer, lower-intensity runs, your body increasingly relies on fat stores to produce energy. This can happen, for example, on runs longer than 10 km (6 miles) (3, 4, 5, 6).
Additionally, most long distance runners also need to fill up on simple sugars to keep their run going. This is why many long-distance runners consume sports drinks or energy gels (5, 6).
Eating around 45–65% of total daily calories from carbohydrates is a good goal for most runners (7, 8).
Stored body fat is another great source of energy, especially when running long distances.
In general, you should aim to get between 20% and 30% of your total daily calories from mostly unsaturated fats. Avoid eating less than 20% of your caloric intake from fat (8).
Low fat intake is linked to a lack of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids (8, 9, 10).
During long-lasting endurance training, your body falls back on its fat reserves as the primary source of energy.
It does this through a process called fat oxidation. Stored triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids, which your body then converts into glucose (1, 3, 5, 6).
While the process of fat oxidation is useful in long distance running, it is less efficient than using carbohydrates during high-intensity exercise. Because fat takes more time to be converted into energy, and that process also requires oxygen (8, 9, 10).
In addition, dietary fat is less efficient as a training fuel than carbohydrates, which are consumed very quickly and are more readily available during exercise (8, 9, 10).
So instead of consuming fat specifically for running, you should consume it as part of a balanced diet to support the functions of your body.
Dietary fat is crucial for:
- healthy joints
- Hormone production
- Nerve function
- General health
It also supports the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), making it an important part of your diet (8, 9, 10).
If you have stomach upset, eat low-fat meals in the few hours before running. Instead, try to eat higher fat meals during recovery periods (10).
Protein is not a primary source of energy during endurance training. Instead, your body supports (11, 12):
- Muscle growth and regrowth
- Tissue repair
- Injury prevention
- the production of oxygen-carrying red blood cells
- Total recovery
Your muscles break down as you run, which makes protein fueling important in rebuilding those muscles. Without protein, the muscles cannot be rebuilt efficiently, which can lead to muscle wasting, increased risk of injury and poorer performance (11, 12).
Although individual needs vary, most research suggests consuming around 0.6-0.9 grams of protein per pound (1.4-2.0 grams per kg) of your body weight per day.
This is sufficient for recovery and can prevent muscle loss in extreme endurance athletes (8, 10, 11).
Exercise puts a strain on your body’s metabolic pathways, so you need a diet high in micronutrients to support its function.
While every athlete has different needs, some micronutrients are particularly important (8):
- Calcium. This is a major contributor to bone health and muscle contraction. Most people get enough calcium-rich foods in their diet, including dairy products and leafy greens.
- Vitamin D. Vitamin D is important for bone health as it supports calcium and phosphorus absorption. It can also contribute to muscle metabolism and function. You can get it through sun exposure, supplements, and foods rich in vitamin D.
- Iron. This is critical to the development of red blood cells, which provide oxygen to working muscle cells. Long distance runners, vegetarians, and vegans may need more than the recommended food intake – more than 18 mg per day for women and 8 mg per day for men.
- Antioxidants. Antioxidants help reduce cell damage from oxidation from intense exercise. Eating foods high in antioxidants – like vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds – seems to be more effective than taking antioxidant supplements.
- Other nutrients and aids. Many athletes use supplements or consume foods to improve performance, such as beetroot, caffeine, beta-alanine, and carnosine. Some of these are backed by more research than others.
For most people, eating a variety of whole foods ensures that you are getting enough micronutrients.
If you think you have a deficiency or want to try a new nutritional supplement, speak to a doctor.
Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy during exercise. As you increase the distance and time of your runs, your body also begins to use stored fat for fuel. Prioritizing your diet can help improve your performance.
Good timing when eating can make all the difference in your runs. Your timing largely depends on:
- how long and far do you run
- your personal goals
- your tolerance
- Your experience
The best way to find out what works for you is through trial and error.
Diet before the run
Most people who run for less than 60 minutes can safely exercise without eating first. Even so, you may want to have a small, high-carb snack to provide a quick source of glucose. Examples are (13, 14):
- 2-3 Medjool dates
- Apple sauce
- a banana
- a glass of orange juice
- Energy gel
If you plan to run for more than 60-90 minutes, have a small meal or snack containing about 15-75 grams of carbohydrates at least 1-3 hours before your workout.
This gives your body enough time to digest your food (8, 13, 14, 15).
Examples of carbohydrates to eat are:
- a fruit smoothie made from milk and a banana
- Scrambled eggs and toast
- a bagel with peanut butter
Avoid high-fiber foods a few hours before running, as these take longer to digest and can cause stomach upset during exercise. Examples are whole grains, beans, lentils, and some vegetables.
After all, people who run for more than 90 minutes may want to recharge with carbohydrates a few days before an event.
This involves consuming a large amount of carbohydrates before a long distance run to make sure your body is storing as much glycogen as possible for quick energy supply (8).
While carbohydrate loading, many people attempt to consume 3.2-4.5 grams of carbohydrates per pound (7-10 grams per kilogram) of their body weight per day 36 to 48 hours before running. The best sources are complex carbohydrates like (8, 9, 10):
- Sweet potatoes
- Whole wheat pasta
- Brown rice
- Multigrain bread
- low fiber cereals
During your run
The only macronutrient that you need to focus on while running is carbohydrates. What you consume should largely depend on the length and intensity of your run.
Here are general guidelines you can follow for different run lengths (8, 9, 10):
- Less than 45 minutes. No high-carb foods or drinks are required.
- 45-75 minutes. You might want a high-carbohydrate mouthwash or small sips of a sports drink.
- 60-150 minutes. You may want to replenish your blood sugar level with 30-60 grams per hour of a sports drink or energy gel.
- 150 minutes or more. For long distance endurance runs, you may need to fill up with 60-90 grams of carbohydrates per hour. Most people prefer to stock up on high-carb sports drinks, gels, chewy candies, and bananas.
Whether you eat right after your run depends on the intensity of the exercise, the duration of the run, and your personal preferences.
If you want to eat right away, try a small snack with carbohydrates and proteins, such as chocolate milk or an energy bar.
Try to eat a meal that is high in carbohydrates and protein within 2 hours of your run.
Try to consume between 20 and 30 grams of protein. Research has shown that this can promote increased muscle protein synthesis.
Some examples of high protein foods are (8, 9, 10, 16):
- Protein powder (whey or vegetable based)
You should also replenish your glycogen stores by eating complex carbohydrates like whole wheat pasta, potatoes, brown rice, and whole grain bread, which provide a constant source of glucose for hours after your run (7, 8, 9, 15).
In most cases, food intake before, during and after the run depends on many personal factors. Try out some of these pointers and tweak them as needed to see what works best for you.
The benefits of fiber | 2021-09-21
The “Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025” state that more than 90% of women and 97% of men do not adhere to the recommended intake of fiber, and such deficits are associated with health risks. This is where fiber fortification in baked goods, a traditional source of intrinsic grain-based fiber, helps consumers get closer to their intake goals. While there is a lot of fiber in it, bakers may want to explore those that give the recipe a function, such as: B. those that can eliminate gluten in bread or reduce sugar in biscuits.
Family-owned and operated Royo Bread Co., New York, launches a low-calorie, keto-friendly artisanal bread that has 30 calories, 2 grams of net carbohydrates, and 11 grams of fiber per slice. Wheat-resistant starch is the first ingredient. Other sources of fiber include wheat protein, wheat bran, whole rye flour, ground flaxseed, and psyllium husk.
“Flax seeds are high in omega-3 fats and fiber,” says Ronit Halaf, a registered nutritionist who started the company in 2019 with her baker husband, Yoel Halaf. “Psyllium husks are an important part of all of our products. It contains soluble fiber and insoluble fiber that will help increase fullness, slow digestion, and most importantly, help you stay regular. Wheat protein, also called wheat gluten, is essential to keep our products together. It contains traces of wheat and is a rich source of fiber, vitamins and minerals. “
For Nature’s Path, Richmond, British Columbia, the focus was on eliminating added sugar in muesli. But ingredient technology also added fiber to it.
“People worry about the amount of sugar they’re consuming,” said Arjan Stephens, general manager of Nature’s Path. “Our new granolas contain 0% added sugar and are still 100% delicious.”
The muesli is available in vanilla-almond butter and mixed berry flavors, with each serving containing 17 grams of whole grain products. That doesn’t mean everything in fiber, however, as one serving only contains 3 grams. This still enables a high-fiber claim. The secret of the muesli’s sweet taste is its main ingredient: date powder.
“Dates are also high in fiber, which is great for digestive health,” said Stephens. “And their fiber content makes dates a low-glycemic food.”
While most Americans are aware that they need to consume more fiber and less sugar, it is not an easy task. You are not ready to forego quality and enjoyment.
According to a study by ADM Outside Voice, more than half of consumers associate fiber with benefits like digestive health. In addition, 56% of consumers report adding or increasing fiber to their diet, the Hartman Group reports in their report, Reimagining Wellbeing Amid COVID-19, 2021.
“However, added fiber can also be linked to digestive problems,” said Sarah Diedrich, Marketing Director, Sweetening Solutions and Fibers, ADM. “Our research has shown that almost 70% of consumers would stop buying a product if it caused gastrointestinal problems.”
This article is an excerpt from the September 2021 issue of Baking & Snack. To read the full fiber optic feature, click here.
Safety, other foods, and more
People with diabetes can enjoy dill pickles as a snack or as part of their favorite dishes. You should be careful with sweet cucumbers, however, and those at risk for heart disease should consider the effects of the added sodium on their health.
Pickled and fermented foods can offer some benefits. People with diabetes who want to include in their diets could try putting vegetables and fruits at home where they can control how much sodium or sugar they are using.
The following article describes everything a person with type 2 diabetes needs to know about cucumber. It also provides information about other fermented foods, what to include in a diet and what to avoid.
A person with type 2 diabetes can eat cucumber as a snack or as part of their meal. There are some exceptions to this rule, and people still need to eat them in moderation.
Dill pickles are generally the best option as they contain less than 2 grams (g) of carbohydrates in a 100 g serving. The low sugar and carbohydrate content should help prevent blood sugar from rising after a meal or snack.
People with type 2 diabetes may also get other health benefits from dill pickles because of the vinegar they often bring with them. According to a 2018 systematic review, several studies have observed that consuming vinegar can help lower levels of A1C in the blood, which is beneficial in treating diabetes.
In another preliminary study from 2013, researchers found similar results. They found that healthy adults who ate vinegar with meals had better fasting glucose levels during the 12-week study.
However, dill pickles have one drawback. They are extremely high in sodium, at 808 milligrams (mg) in a 100 g serving. Since a person with diabetes is already at a higher risk of heart disease and high blood pressure, they should only eat dill pickles in moderation to avoid too much sodium in their diet.
Sweet pickles are not that suitable for diabetics. They contain about 18.3 g of sugar in a 100 g serving. To prevent blood sugar spikes, a person should consider eating protein like chicken and healthy fat like olive oil when ingesting a sweet cucumber.
Sweet cucumbers also contain around 457 mg of sodium in the same serving.
To be clear, sweet pickles include “bread and butter” and other sweeter pickles.
Pickles have relatively no nutritional value. Although they are often low in calories, they don’t provide many vitamins or minerals other than sodium, which can be harmful to a person’s health.
A person living with type 2 diabetes may find that adding pickled or fermented foods to their diet is beneficial.
Fermented foods can have health benefits, such as the provision of antioxidants. Numerous studies show that consuming antioxidants can help reduce the number of free radicals or harmful particles circulating through the body.
However, the American Diabetes Association lists pickled foods as high in sodium and says people should eat them in moderation.
Some pickled foods that a person can add to their diet in moderation are:
A person can also pickle vegetables and fruits at home, which means they can pickle almost any vegetable they want. Home pickling has some nutritional benefits as a person can control how much sodium or sugar they use in making the pickled foods.
If home pickling is not an option, a person should look for pickled foods that:
- low in sodium
- little sugar
People with diabetes should speak to their doctor about the best diet change based on their situation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that a person follow a nutrition plan based on the following criteria:
- individual taste
Although a eating plan can vary, they recommend a person eat the following:
- mostly whole foods like vegetables, fruits, lean proteins, and whole grains
- starch-free vegetables like broccoli, spinach, zucchini, mushrooms, green beans, and other leafy greens
- less sugar and refined grains like white bread, pasta, baked goods and candy
Find out more about the best foods for people with diabetes here.
People with diabetes should aim to limit foods high in sugar and processed carbohydrates. These foods can quickly raise a person’s blood sugar levels and are generally not beneficial for anyone’s health.
Some foods that you should avoid include:
- Energy drinks
- flavored milk
- Sports drinks
- sweetened tea
- fruit juice
- normal lemonade
In addition, a person should limit the following foods:
- ice cream
- white pasta, white bread, and other processed carbohydrates
A person with type 2 diabetes can consume cucumbers in moderation as part of their diet. You may find that the cucumber vinegar helps control your blood sugar levels.
A person should look for low-sodium and sugar-free varieties to reduce their sodium intake and prevent blood sugar spikes.
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