For decades, dietary guidelines have urged adults to fill most of their plates with whole grains, fruits and vegetables. And for just as long, many people have not met the goals of MyPlate, a healthy eating tool developed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Now, two new studies suggest that even if you don’t get your target amounts of these foods, it’s worth the effort. In these studies – one focused on fruits and vegetables and the other on grains – consuming more of these foods was linked to a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
“We know that diet is one of the most important factors determining your risk of developing type 2 diabetes,” said Qi Sun, MD, doctor of science and lead author of the study that examined whole grains and researchers from Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston.
“Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, extra virgin olive oil, nuts, yogurt, and other healthy foods may result in a lower risk of developing this disease,” says Dr. Sun.
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How Different Types of Whole Grains Can Lower Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Sun and colleagues examined data from nutrition questionnaires and health surveys completed by 158,259 women and 36,525 men without type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. After an average follow-up period of 24 years, 18,629 participants developed type 2 diabetes.
Overall, the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes was 29 percent lower among those who consumed the most whole grain products than among those who consumed the smallest amounts of these foods, according to the results published in the BMJ in July 2020 .
Whole grains included products with the following ingredients:
- Whole wheat and whole wheat flour
- Whole grain oats and whole wheat flour
- Whole wheat flour and corn flour
- Whole rye and rye flour
- Whole barley
- Whole grain rice and whole grain rice flour
- Flea seeds
People who ate the highest amounts of different grains – at least one daily serving – developed less type 2 diabetes than people who consumed the lowest amounts – less than a monthly serving. The reduced risk of type 2 diabetes for various grains was:
- 21 percent less for oatmeal
- 21 percent less for dark wholemeal bread
- 19 percent cheaper for whole grain breakfast cereals
- 18 percent less for brown rice
- 18 percent less wheat germ
One limitation of the study is that it relies on participants to accurately remember their eating habits and report on what leaves room for error. (If you forgot what you had for breakfast today, the problem becomes easy to understand.) Another disadvantage is that the study participants all worked in health professions, and most of them were white; This may mean that the results do not reflect what is happening for people with different educational or professional backgrounds, or for people of other races and ethnic groups.
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The more fruits and vegetables you eat, the lower your risk of type 2 diabetes may be
Another study published in the BMJ in July 2020 examined data from blood tests for two biomarkers of fruit and vegetable consumption – plasma vitamin C and carotenoids – in 9,754 people with type 2 diabetes and 13,662 people without the disease. The participants came from eight European countries: France, Italy, Spain, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Denmark.
Compared to people who had the lowest plasma vitamin C and carotenoid levels in laboratory tests, study participants with the highest blood levels of these two biomarkers had a 50 percent lower chance of developing type 2 diabetes, according to the analysis revealed. People who fell somewhere in the middle – not the lowest or highest scores – were still 23 to 41 percent less likely to have type 2 diabetes than participants with the lowest levels of these biomarkers in their blood.
In this study, the researchers also asked participants about their eating habits. The median self-reported daily fruit and vegetable intake was 274 grams (g) or about 2¼ cups for people with the lowest plasma vitamin C and carotenoid levels in the blood and 508 g or about 4⅛ cups for those with the highest levels of these Biomarkers. Every 66 g gain, or about ¼ cup, of daily fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a 25 percent lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
While one advantage of this study is that blood biomarkers were used to objectively measure eating habits, one caveat is that the results did not take into account a variety of other factors, such as income, education, and other lifestyle choices, that could have an impact the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Still, the results suggest that even a modest increase in fruit and vegetable consumption can help prevent type 2 diabetes, says lead study author Nita Forouhi, PhD, of the University of Cambridge in the UK.
“Something is better than nothing,” says Dr. Forouhi.
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The challenges of studying dietary patterns and disease risks
A study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition in August 2016 examined the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes in two different cohorts of adults under the age of 50 who had no history of cancer, heart disease or diabetes. Overall, no association could be found in this study, but in one of the two cohorts, those who ate the most fruit had a 5 percent lower risk of type 2 diabetes, and those who ate the most vegetables had the most a 13 percent lower risk than those who have consumed the smallest amounts of these foods.
An older study published in PLoS Medicine tracked more than 160,000 women for more than a decade and found that people who consumed the most whole grains had a 25 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes . The researchers also analyzed the data from six previous studies and found a 21 percent reduction in type 2 diabetes risk for every two daily servings of whole grains.
Part of the reason for the inconsistent results of studies is that much of that research – along with similar research on dietary habits and disease risk – relies on nutrition questionnaires that are only as good as participants’ ability to remember and accurately report on what they have eaten in the past, says Lauri Wright, PhD, RDN, the chair of the division of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Florida at Jacksonville.
“Food recalls are known to be subject to recall bias and measurement errors, which has led to some inconsistencies in research on the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and diabetes,” said Dr. Wright, who was not involved in any of the studies, published in the BMJ.
Tips for including more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables in your diet
An easy way to get more fruits and vegetables is to fill half the plate with these foods at each meal, Wright says. Then fill about a quarter with whole grain products and a quarter with lean meat.
Another easy thing is to swap out less healthy versions of foods for healthier alternatives, Wright suggests.
“Replace white bread with whole wheat, choose a whole grain cereal or oatmeal for breakfast, add barley or bulgur to your soups and casseroles, make half your pasta whole grain,” advises Wright.
Buying a wide variety of fresh fruits and vegetables during the season is also a great way to get more of these foods onto your plate. But frozen alternatives are just as nutritious, and canned foods can work in a pinch, as long as you check the labels to avoid added sugar and sodium, Wright says.
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Dietary approaches to prevent type 2 diabetes
In order to eat foods that minimize the risk of type 2 diabetes, there are four important things to keep in mind, according to the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health. These include:
- Choose whole grains instead of refined or highly processed grains
- Choose water over sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages
- Choose healthy fats in nuts, seeds, and olive oil over unhealthy trans fats
- Choose poultry and fish instead of red and processed meats like bacon and sausages
A variety of diets can achieve these goals. Two that are widely recommended by clinicians are the Mediterranean Diet and the Diet with Diets to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Both the Mediterranean and DASH diets encourage the consumption of fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish, and poultry. And both diets limit red meat, added sugar, and salt.
“Both the DASH and Mediterranean diets are great options for starting a more plant-based diet, and there are many cookbooks based on them,” said Samantha Heller, RD, a senior clinical nutritionist at NYU Langone Health in New York City .
Consultation of cookbooks that focus on the plant-based diet can be enough to point many people in the right direction. However, if you belong to a group known to be at higher risk for type 2 diabetes, you may need additional help.
“If you have a family history of type 2 diabetes or have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, work with a registered dietitian who can help you create a personalized plan that reflects your dietary preferences, culture, lifestyle and Take your budget into account, ”advises Hellerer.
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How to live longer: Whole grains can boost longevity Introduction
In recent years, supermarkets have struggled to meet demand for healthier foods after the evidence of healthy eating increased. Fruits and vegetables are often revered for their endless benefits, but in recent years other foods have also proven to be buffers against a number of ailments. There is a growing line of research highlighting the health benefits of consuming whole grains and their potential longevity effects.
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Doctor Qi Sun, associate professor at Harvard Medical School, stated that a whole-grain diet is also “linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and certain types of cancer.”
The study was based on nutritional information from more than 100,000 men and women followed for more than 20 years.
Participants who replaced one serving of refined grains per day with whole grain products reduced their risk of death by eight percent over the study period.
Research suggests that the longevity effects are due to the compounds, particularly fiber, magnesium, vitamins, and phytochemicals.
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Dietary guidelines recommend eating at least three servings of whole grains a day, with a survivor reducing the overall risk of death by 5 percent.
A serving of whole grains is equivalent to 28 grams or 1 ounce, that’s three cups of popcorn, one cup of whole grain muesli or a slice of whole grain bread.
In addition, the results showed that the risk of death was reduced by 20 percent during the study period if a daily serving of red meat was replaced with whole grain products.
Sun said, “If you really look at whole grain consumption with other diseases, stroke, heart disease, and colon cancer, whole grains are consistently associated with lower risk for these diseases.
“Half of the grains that a person consumes every day should come from whole grain products.”
David Jacobs, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Minnesota School who was not involved in the study, commented: “[The study] showed, as some other studies have shown in several other contexts, that consumption of whole grains is associated with reduced all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease, but not particularly strongly associated with mortality from cancer.
“It is a very difficult thing in nutritional epidemiology to separate such things and make certain statements.”
The researchers also explained that whole grains have a lower glycemic index, meaning they result in less increases and decreases in blood sugar, and explain how the food might protect against type 2 diabetes.
The Mayo Clinic notes that unrefined whole grains are a superior source of fiber when compared to other nutrients.
The health authority recommends adding them to your diet by “enjoying breakfasts that contain whole grains, such as whole bran flakes, whole wheat meal, or oatmeal”.
“Replace plan bagels with wholegrain toast or wholegrain bagels,” it continues. “Bring sandwiches with whole grain bread or rolls.”
Tom Brady reveals he doesn’t ‘eat much bread’ and experts say it can keep you young
Tom Brady isn’t a fan of bread, but that didn’t stop him from becoming a Subway spokesperson.
The six-time NFL Super Bowl champion confirmed his new partnership with the global sandwich chain in an Instagram post he shared with his 10.1 million followers on Sunday.
“As this new commercial will tell you, I don’t eat a lot of bread, but at the end of the day I know size when I see it,” he wrote.
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Brady, 44, shared his strict anti-inflammatory diet that excludes white flour, sugar, and gluten – key ingredients found in most commercially made breads. While the NFL quarterback allegedly avoids bread to keep his digestive system in tip-top shape, it turns out that scraping bread off can help you look and feel young.
Registered nutritionist Maryann Walsh of Walsh Nutrition Consulting told Fox News that some carbohydrate-free guests report having more energy throughout the day. report that they have more energy throughout the day.
“Consuming large amounts of bread or refined carbohydrates can cause blood sugar spikes, followed by a blood sugar drop that makes you feel sluggish,” said Walsh. “By eliminating or significantly reducing bread, it can help some experience more sustained blood sugar levels, resulting in more sustained energy levels.”
She added, “Blood sugar spikes from overeating can accelerate aging, as Advanced Glycation End Products (aptly named AGEs) accelerate aging. AGEs are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to undesirable accelerated skin aging and joint inflammation, and an increased susceptibility to diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. “
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Tom Brady, 44, shared his strict anti-inflammatory diet that excludes white flour, sugar, and gluten – key ingredients found in most commercially made breads. (iStock)
Aside from potential energy and longevity, Walsh said avoiding bread could contribute to an overall leaner figure.
“Since bread is an important source of carbohydrates, it can cause water retention in the body, which can make many feel bloated,” she said. “Carbohydrates turn into glycogen in the body, and glycogen normally holds two to three times its weight in water. Because of this, when people start a low-carb diet, they lose weight quickly when they start out because, in addition to losing fat, often they don’t hold on as much water . “
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It’s not clear if the Tampa Bay Buccaneers quarterback watched a fountain of youth from cutting bread, but Brady’s personal chef – Allen Campbell – told Boston.com that the NFL star is following an organic, gluten-free diet to keep his guts healthy maintain health.
“Gluten is the protein in bread that can ‘react’ with our immune system,” said registered nutritionist Caroline Thomason in an interview with Fox News. “In people who are sensitive to gluten and who experience negative reactions when they eat bread, gluten increases the inflammation in their bodies.”
Gluten is a protein found in various types of grain, including wheat, barley, and rye.
She continued, “The symptoms of gluten intolerance can be insidious. These include rashes, indigestion, gas, headaches, and fatigue.”
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Other symptoms of gluten sensitivity include joint pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal issues, which she said can happen to people who have been diagnosed with celiac disease or not, according to Walsh.
“Gluten-free bread and pasta are available, but it’s important to note that just because a product is gluten-free doesn’t mean it’s low in carbohydrates,” said Walsh. “Anyone who hopes to feel better by doing without or reducing bread will want to enjoy gluten-free bread sparingly.”
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Jinan Banna, a nutrition professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, told Fox News that people who are not sensitive to gluten have little reason to avoid bread.
While there are benefits to not overeating, most people don’t need to cut out carbohydrates or gluten to stay healthy.
“Bread is a source of carbohydrates that our bodies can use for energy, and it’s also rich in vitamins and minerals,” said Banna. “Whole grain bread also provides several grams of fiber per slice, which is important for digestive health, weight management, and maintaining heart health.”
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In addition to Brady’s bread- and gluten-free diet, the quarterback is also said to exclude selected vegetables from his diet for similar gut health reasons.
“Tom Brady is likely to exclude nightshades – tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, etc. – from his diet because they have also been shown to work with our immune systems,” said Thomason. “This is especially true for people with autoimmune diseases who are more prone to lower immune systems.”
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Brady’s representatives did not immediately respond to Fox News’ request for comment.
What Is Cellulose and Is It Safe to Eat?
Cellulose is a fiber found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods as part of a plant’s cell walls. It occurs in tree bark and in the leaves of a plant.
When you eat plant foods, you are consuming cellulose. But you may not know that cellulose fiber is also being removed from plants to be used as an additive in many other foods and sold as dietary supplements (1).
This article provides an overview of cellulose, where it is commonly found and whether it is safe to consume.
Cellulose consists of a number of sugar molecules that are linked together in a long chain. Since it is a fiber that forms plant cell walls, it is found in all plant foods.
When you ingest foods that contain it, the cellulose stays intact as it travels through your small intestine. Humans do not have the enzymes needed to break down cellulose (1).
Cellulose is also an insoluble fiber and does not dissolve in water. When consumed, insoluble fiber can help push food through the digestive system and aid in regular bowel movements (2).
In addition to their role in digestive health, fiber like cellulose can also be beneficial in other ways. Studies suggest that high fiber intake may reduce the risk of various diseases, including stomach cancer and heart disease (3).
Cellulose is an indigestible, insoluble fiber found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants.
Fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and other plant-based foods contain varying amounts of cellulose. The skin of plant foods usually contains more cellulose than the pulp.
Celery in particular has a very high cellulose content. If you’ve ever got stringy pieces of celery between your teeth, you’ve felt cellulose in action (4).
Cellulose is also a common food additive. In this use, it is obtained either from wood or waste from the production of plant-based foods such as oat shells or peanut and almond shells (1).
Other names for cellulose added to food include:
- Cellulose rubber
- microcrystalline cellulose
- Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
- microcrystalline cellulose
Cellulose can be added to grated cheese or dried spice mixes to prevent lumps. It’s also found in some ice creams and frozen yogurts, especially low-fat varieties, to thicken or blend the product and add thickness without fat (1).
Bread products can be fortified with cellulose to increase their fiber content. Additionally, cellulose can add bulk to nutritional or low-calorie foods like meal replacement shakes so that they become filling without adding to total calories (1).
It’s worth noting that fiber is generally added to many foods, even things like yogurt and ground beef. If you are interested to see if the products you have bought contain cellulose or other added fiber, check the ingredients list.
Finally, cellulose is available in the form of dietary supplements. Cellulose supplements often contain a modified version of cellulose that forms a gel in the digestive tract.
Manufacturers of these supplements claim that they will help you fill your stomach, lower your caloric intake, and promote weight loss (2, 5).
However, it is unclear whether cellulose preparations meet their requirements.
A manufacturer-sponsored study of the weight loss effects of the cellulose supplement Plenity found that people who took the supplement lost more weight than those who took a placebo after 24 weeks. However, further long-term studies are required (5).
Cellulose is found in all plant-based foods and in the form of dietary supplements. It is a common food additive and is found in ice cream, grated cheese, and dietary foods, among others.
Eating cellulose – especially from whole fruits and vegetables, grains, beans, and other plant-based foods – is generally considered safe.
All of the possible disadvantages of cellulose are related to the side effects of consuming too much fiber. In general, if you eat too much cellulose, fiber, or take cellulosic supplements, you may experience:
- Upset stomach
Current dietary guidelines recommend that adults consume at least 25 grams of fiber per day from food, but may require more or less depending on age, gender, and personal needs (6).
If you are following a high-fiber diet or increasing your fiber intake, you should drink plenty of water to avoid unpleasant side effects. Exercise can also help.
Those on a low-fiber diet should limit their intake of cellulose. People with a health condition that affects the digestive system, such as: B. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) also need to watch out for cellulose in food.
Cellulose as a food additive is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The amounts of cellulose currently used in food are not considered to be hazardous to humans (7).
Keep in mind, however, that getting fiber from whole plant foods is usually better than getting it from additives or supplements. In addition to fiber, these foods provide many other beneficial nutrients and compounds.
Before adding any cellulosic supplements to your diet, it is best to speak with a doctor.
Consuming cellulose from foods, supplements, or additives is likely to be safe for most people. However, too much of it can lead to side effects that come with excessive consumption of fiber such as gas, gas, and abdominal pain.
Cellulose is a type of fiber that forms the cell walls of plants. When you eat plant foods, you are eating cellulose.
Many other foods, from grated cheese to low-calorie or diet foods, have cellulose added to support various properties. Cellulose also exists in the form of dietary supplements.
It is generally safe to consume cellulose. However, if you eat too much cellulose or fiber, you may experience nasty side effects such as gas and gas.
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