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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Teff Flour: Uses, Nutrients, and Benefits



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Teff is a traditional grain in Ethiopia and one of the country’s staple foods. It’s very nutritious and naturally gluten-free.

It is also often made into flour for cooking and baking.

With gluten-free alternatives to wheat growing in popularity, you may want to learn more about teff flour, including its benefits and uses.

This article will tell you everything you need to know about teff flour.

Teff is a tropical cereal plant that belongs to the grass family, Poaceae. It is mainly grown in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it is believed to have originated thousands of years ago (1, 2).

It’s drought-resistant, can grow in a variety of environmental conditions, and comes in both darker and lighter varieties, with brown and ivory being the most popular (1, 2).

It’s also the smallest grain in the world, measuring only 1/100 the size of a grain of wheat.

Teff has an earthy, nutty taste. Light varieties also tend to be slightly sweet.

Much of its recent popularity in the west is due to its being gluten-free.


Teff is a tiny grain that is primarily grown in Ethiopia and has an earthy, sweet taste. It does not naturally contain gluten.

Because it is so small, teff is usually prepared and eaten as a whole grain instead of being broken down into sprouts, bran, and kernels as in wheat processing (1).

Teff can also be ground and used as gluten-free whole wheat flour.

In Ethiopia, teff flour is fermented with yeast that lives on the surface of the grain and used to make a traditional sourdough flatbread called injera.

This spongy, soft bread is usually used as the basis for Ethiopian dishes. It is made by pouring fermented teff flour batter onto a hot grill plate.

In addition, teff flour is a great gluten-free alternative to wheat flour for baking bread or making packaged foods like pasta. In addition, it is often used as a nutritional value for products containing wheat (2, 3).

How to add it to your diet

You can use teff flour instead of wheat flour in numerous dishes such as pancakes, cookies, cakes, muffins and bread, as well as gluten-free egg noodles (2).

Gluten-free recipes only require teff flour and other gluten-free options, but unless you are strictly gluten-free, you can use teff in addition to wheat flour (2).

Keep in mind that gluten-deficient teff products may not be as chewy as those made from wheat.


Teff can be cooked and eaten as whole grains or ground into flour and used to make baked goods, bread, pasta and traditional Ethiopian injera.

Teff is very nutritious. Only 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of teff flour provide (4):

  • Calories: 366
  • Protein: 12.2 grams
  • Fat: 3.7 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 70.7 grams
  • Fiber: 12.2 grams
  • Iron: 37% of the daily value (DV)
  • Calcium: 11% of the DV

It’s important to note that the nutritional composition of teff appears to vary significantly depending on the variety, growing area, and brand (1, 5).

Still, compared to other grains, teff is a good source of copper, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, and selenium (1, 5).

In addition, it is an excellent source of protein that contains all of the essential amino acids that are the building blocks of protein in your body (1).

It is particularly rich in lysine, an amino acid that other grains are often lacking. Lysine is essential for the production of proteins, hormones, enzymes, collagen, and elastin, and also supports calcium absorption, energy production, and immune function (1, 6).

However, some of the nutrients in teff flour can be poorly absorbed because they are bound to anti-nutrients like phytic acid. You can reduce the effects of these compounds through lacto-fermentation (1, 7).

To ferment teff flour, mix it with water and leave it at room temperature for a few days. Naturally occurring or added lactic acid bacteria and yeasts then break down the sugar and some of the phytic acid.


Teff flour is a rich source of protein and numerous minerals. Fermentation can reduce some of its anti-nutrients.

Teff flour has several benefits that can make it a great addition to your diet.

Naturally gluten-free

Gluten is a group of proteins found in wheat and several other grains that give dough its elastic texture.

However, some people cannot eat gluten because of an autoimmune condition called celiac disease.

Celiac disease causes your body’s immune system to attack the lining of your small intestine. This can affect the absorption of nutrients, which can lead to anemia, weight loss, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, and gas.

Additionally, some people without celiac disease may find gluten difficult to digest and may prefer to avoid it (8).

Since teff flour does not naturally contain gluten, it is a perfect gluten-free alternative to wheat flour (9).

Rich in fiber

Teff is higher in fiber than many other grains (2).

Teff flour contains up to 12.2 grams of fiber per 3.5 ounces (100 grams). In comparison, wheat and rice flour contain only 2.4 grams, while an equal serving of oat flour has 6.5 grams (1, 10, 11, 12).

It is generally recommended that women and men consume 25 and 38 grams of fiber per day, respectively. This can consist of both insoluble and soluble fiber. While some studies claim that most of the fiber in teff flour is insoluble, others have found a more even blend (1).

Most of the insoluble fiber passes through your intestines undigested. It increases stool volume and supports bowel movements (13).

Soluble fiber, on the other hand, draws water into your intestines to soften the stool. It also feeds the healthy bacteria in your gut and is involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism (13).

A high-fiber diet is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, bowel disease, and constipation (1, 14).

Rich in iron

Teff is said to be extremely high in iron, an essential mineral that uses red blood cells to transport oxygen through your body (15).

In fact, consumption of this grain has been linked to reduced rates of anemia in pregnant women and may help certain people avoid iron deficiency (16, 17, 18).

Incredibly, some studies report iron levels as high as 80 mg in 100 grams of Teff, or 444% of the DV. However, recent studies show that these staggering numbers are likely due to contamination with ferrous soil – not the grain itself (1).

Additionally, teff’s high phytic acid content means your body is unlikely to be consuming all of the iron (19).

Even so, even conservative estimates make teff a better source of iron than many other grains. For example, 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of one brand of teff flour provides 37% of the DV for iron – while the same amount of wheat flour only provides 5% (4, 10).

However, in the United States, wheat flour is usually fortified with iron. Check the nutrition label to find out exactly how much iron is in a particular product.

Lower glycemic index than wheat products

The glycemic index (GI) shows how much a food raises blood sugar levels. Foods over 70 are considered high, which means they make blood sugar rise faster, while foods under 55 are considered low. Everything in between is moderate (20, 21).

A low GI diet can be an effective way for people with diabetes to control their blood sugar (22, 23, 24).

Whole, cooked teff has a relatively low GI compared to many grains with a moderate GI of 57 (25).

This lower GI is likely due to it being eaten whole grain. Therefore, it contains more fiber, which can help prevent blood sugar spikes (1).

However, the GI changes depending on the preparation.

For example, the GI of traditional injera ranges from 79–99 and that of teff porridge ranges from 94–137 – both of which are high GI foods. This is because water gelatinizes the starch, making it quicker to absorb and digest (1).

On the flip side, teff flour bread has a GI of 74, which is still high but lower than bread made from wheat, quinoa, or buckwheat and similar to that of oat or sorghum bread (1).

While teff may have a lower GI than most grain products, keep in mind that it still has a moderate to high GI. Anyone with diabetes should still carefully control their portion sizes and keep an eye on the carbohydrate content.


Teff flour is gluten-free and therefore ideal for people with celiac disease. It’s also high in fiber and iron.

Since the production of teff flour is currently limited, it is more expensive than other gluten-free flours.

Cheaper gluten-free flours are rice, oat, amaranth, sorghum, corn, millet and buckwheat flours.

Some restaurants and manufacturers may add wheat flour to teff products like bread or pasta to make them more economical or to improve texture. Therefore, these products are unsuitable for people on a gluten-free diet (1).

If you have celiac disease, make sure that you use pure teff without products containing gluten. Always look for gluten-free certification for all teff products.


Teff flour is relatively expensive compared to other gluten-free flours. Some teff products are mixed with wheat flour, making them unsuitable for anyone who avoids gluten.

Teff is a traditional Ethiopian grain that is high in fiber, protein, and minerals. Its flour is quickly becoming a popular gluten-free alternative to wheat flour.

It’s not as common as other gluten-free flours and can be more expensive. Still, it’s a great addition to bread and other baked goods – and if you’re feeling adventurous, try your hand at making injera.

Buy teff flour online.

Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

The hunt for New Zealand’s best meal kit delivery service



Jihee Junn analyzes the numbers from a recent study comparing the greatest players in the Meal Pack game.

As a single parent, childless person who doesn’t mind eating five bowls of oatmeal a day, I can’t say I’ve ever fully embraced the movement of meal sets. But I know that for many families, having the same meals cooked or taken away every week is not a viable option. For example, my eternally exhausted sister and her busy husband have three young children who don’t eat anything all the time, except chocolate, french fries, and pizza. Eating out – even at McDonald’s – somehow always costs a small fortune.

It is no coincidence that parceled meals have found a lucrative niche in families like hers. When the concept first hit the market in Sweden in the late 2000s, they were exactly with the modern family in mind – one where both parents worked full-time. Created to combine our desire for fresh, healthy home-cooked meals with our increasingly busy, comfortable lives, it wasn’t long before the concept gained momentum and spread across the continent to central Europe and the United States by 2012 .

Around the same time that food parcels were on the rise in the USA, the idea with the introduction of My Food Bag 2013, which was co-founded by star chef Nadia Lim, had also found its way to Aotearoa. A few years later came the slightly more gourmet Woop service (which stands for “world on our plate” in case you’re wondering), followed by the Bargain Box, a cheaper option launched by the My Food Bag team. Then, in 2018, HelloFresh came on the market – the German meal kit juggernaut that managed to capture a large part of the local market in less than three years.

The Hello Fresh empire arrived in New Zealand in 2018. Photo: Hello Fresh

As the Covid-19 lockdowns accelerate the growth in meal set deliveries, My Food Bag, Woop, Bargain Box and HelloFresh have had a lot to celebrate over the past two years. More people than ever are trying these “essential services” instead of the supermarket chaos, and while they all share the same business model, there are important differences, a recent study by consumer-centric research website MoneyHub points out.

Over the course of six months, the team subscribed to the four largest and most popular meal set delivery services in New Zealand and consumed over 100 different meals to directly compare almost every detail you could ask for, including cost, cooking time, and packaging waste ( Unfortunately, taste was deliberately left out because it was perceived as “too subjective”). We have summarized their key insights into which company did well in which areas. To read full details and see photos of each meal, go to MoneyHub website.

Prices and plans

Aside from the Bargain Box, which only offers two types of plans (classic and vegetarian), the remaining three offer meals tailored to a gluten-free or health-conscious diet, as well as a plant-based plan from My Food Bag that is completely vegan in ingredients . All three also have options that instead let you choose from a selection of recipes from different plans, with HelloFresh having the largest selection of recipes (20+) that you can combine and customize each week.

However, if you only want to get the most bang for your buck, the Bargain Box is your best bet, especially if you want to feed a large family or have multiple servings on hand. Designed to accommodate the largest number of people from all four services, a regular five meal plan can only cost $ 6.30 per plate for six people ($ 190 per week), $ 7.30 per plate for four people (140 USD per week). and $ 11.50 per plate for two ($ 115).

Remember: meal sets are designed so that the bigger your order (more servings, more meals), the cheaper it will be per plate.

Bargain box from a bird’s eye view (Photo: MoneyHub)

HelloFresh (including the $ 10 delivery fee) ranks second in the price per platter. But with more than 20 recipes to choose from compared to Bargain Box’s eight recipes, HelloFresh has a far wider choice for just a few more dollars, especially if you have dietary requirements. However, it’s worth noting that there is an additional $ 5 delivery fee in the South Island.

Packaging and ingredients

Woop may be the most expensive of the four, but the comparison found that not only does it contain the highest quality local ingredients, but it also produces the least amount of waste. Its pre-made sauces and precisely portioned ingredients were found to leave the least amount of food waste and unused ingredients, while its recipes also required the fewest and simplest “pantry items” (ingredients not included).

Most of woops The packaging is made from materials that are suitable for roadside recycling, but Woop also gives you the option to return all of your packaging directly to the company (provided it is completely clean, dry, and food-free) that it at yours next order and properly recycled. This includes things like soft plastics as well as gel cold packs that are disinfected, frozen and reused for other woop deliveries.

A typical woop box contains less waste than its competitors. Photo: MoneyHub

Cooking and preparation

With regard to the actual preparation of the meals, the comparison showed that the preparation and cooking (carried out by one person) took significantly longer than all estimates of all four providers. Based on the recipes used during the comparison, the actual time taken to prepare meals averaged between 20 and 30 minutes longer than the average estimated times. Of course, this all depends on the speed and skills of whoever does the job, but if you’re your average home cook, it’s safe to say that it will likely take a little longer than any of these companies think.

However, among the four companies, the recipes were the fastest to prepare thanks to Woop’s pre-made sauces and sometimes pre-cooked vegetables, with an estimated time averaging 23 minutes, or around 40 minutes in reality. My Food Bag and HelloFresh (excluding the “fresh and quick” recipes that only take 15 minutes) were the second and third fastest with an estimated average time of 37 and 40 minutes, in reality around 55 and 60 minutes. The Bargain Box meals lasted the longest, with the 35-minute meals running closer to 65.

Two bargain box meals prepared during the study that, on average, lasted much longer than promised (Photo: MoneyHub)

In the meantime, if you’re the cook who needs all the help you can get, comparing HelloFresh’s recipe cards proved to be the best of the group. Her detailed instructions included pictures of all the ingredients and each step of the cooking process, as well as a list of the utensils you need and suggestions as to whether you should prepare a particular dish earlier than another. The ingredients for each dish are also packaged in individually color-coded paper bags, so you can easily sort what you need each time you cook.

Which one is right for me?

No company does the best at everything, and all have their individual weaknesses. For example, Woop only delivers to certain cities, HelloFresh charges extra for the South Island, Bargain Box has little for those with dietary requirements, while My Food Bag often requires more unusual supplies such as whole grain mustard, rice vinegar and corn starch. It’s up to you to decide what is important and what is not, but here is which service, in MoneyHub’s opinion, is best.


“Best for people in large cities (because of their delivery areas) and plans for one person. Their estimated prep times are consistently shorter than those of the other companies, and while we didn’t necessarily finish the meals in the estimated time, they were faster than the other food companies we tried. All of their plans use high quality ingredients, but we especially liked their ‘Foodie’ plan as it is the only gourmet option on the market that is available for one, two or four people. “

Hello Fresh

“Best for people without much cooking experience, because the recipe cards are very detailed and the app helps too. [It also has the] largest selection of recipes to choose from and you get access to the HelloFresh cookbook with thousands of recipes. They offer a particularly good price-performance ratio for low-calorie and vegetarian recipes. “

My grocery bag

“Best for weight loss plans and herbal recipes, but there are many plans. Wide availability across New Zealand (according to their website, they serve 86% of New Zealanders). We have found that they use more adventurous spices than HelloFresh and Bargain Box, but also require more supplies for their preparation. “

Bargain box

“Best for the budget-conscious, families with more than four members or picky eaters, as the recipes are usually kiwi classics.”

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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

10 Kale Pasta Dishes, from Spaghetti to Lasagne!



Kale is a plant in the cabbage family, which also includes favorites like cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi, arugula, and Brussels sprouts. Kale was nicknamed King Kale for its excellent nutritional profile and health benefits. It’s also tasty and easy to incorporate into many meals.

Kale is rich in vitamins A, K, C, B6, manganese, calcium, copper, potassium, magnesium. It’s high in chlorophyll and contains 3 grams of protein per cup. In fact, a cup of raw kale contains more vitamin C, an important antioxidant, than an orange and is also one of the most well-known sources of vitamin K. Plus, kale is a good source of fiber and is low in fat and calories. This makes kale one of the most nutritious foods out there.

There are obviously many ways to include kale in your meals, from side dishes to smoothies to desserts. Here we have a list of the best ways to incorporate kale into your favorite pasta dishes.

1. Garden picnic noodle salad with vegetables, herbs and orange-miso-tahini dressing

Garden picnic noodle salad with vegetables, herbs and orange-miso-tahini dressing

Source: Garden picnic noodle salad with vegetables, herbs and orange-miso-tahini dressing / One Green Planet

Kale plays an important role in this garden picnic noodle salad with vegetables, herbs, and orange miso tahini dressing from The Whole Foods Diet. Pasta is tossed along with a rainbow of vegetables and topped with a creamy orange-miso-tahini dressing that adds a lemony touch. Here, kale is eaten raw. This is a quick toss-up meal and works wonderfully as leftovers.

2. Creamy kale and zucchini pasta

Creamy kale and zucchini pasta

Source: Creamy kale and zucchini pasta/ A green planet

This is a great recipe for anyone looking for an alternative to wheat noodles. It is also ideal for this time of year when zucchini are in season. In this recipe for Creamy kale and zucchini pasta from Rouxbe, the kale is cooked with caramelized onions and stirred into the zucchini noodles. A creamy tahini sauce brings it all together.

3. A pot of creamy Tuscan kale pasta

Source: One Pot Creamy Tuscan Kale Pasta / One Green Planet

You can put this meal together in under 30 minutes. The creamy sauce of this One Pot Creamy Tuscan Kale Pasta by Shanika Graham-White is made from cashew nuts, which gives you a velvety texture and a protein boost. The kale is sautéed with garlic and tomatoes for a rich hearty taste.

4. Pasta Primavera

Pasta with vegetables

Source: Pasta Primavera / One Green Planet

This is a really simple dish that requires you to add some veggies and, of course, some kale to a jar of tomato sauce. This could be one you had in your pantry waiting for the perfect recipe. This Pasta Primavera recipe from Wholesome LLC is a perfect weekday meal.

5. Vegetable protein pasta salad bowl

Pasta salad with vegetable protein

Source: Plant Protein Pasta Salad Bowl / One Green Planet

This vegetable protein pasta salad bowl from Nikki and Zuzana call for red lentil noodles that add protein power, but you can use any pasta of your choice. You’re still getting plenty of protein from the black lentils and hemp heart-based dressing. Here kale is accompanied by its green friends spinach, rocket and many fresh herbs.

6. Kale Walnut Pesto Noodles

Vegan kale walnut pesto pasta

Source: Kale-Walnut-Pesto-Pasta / One Green Planet

This Mitra Shirmohammadi Kale Walnut Pesto Noodle Recipe couldn’t be easier. Aside from making a pot of pasta, all you need to do is put all of the ingredients in a blender to make a batch of this kale pesto. Kale is added to the pesto along with the traditional basil flavor. Walnuts are used in place of pine nuts and a healthy dose of nutritional yeast gives it that “cheesy” note.

7. Spaghetti a la Caesar

Spaghetti a la Caesar

Source: Spaghetti a la Caesar / One Green Planet

This recipe for Spaghetti a la Caesar by Kim Sujovolsky is also easy to make. Kale is sautéed with garlic and mixed with the spaghetti. Then the dish is served with a serving of almond parmesan, lemon and chilli flakes.

8. Sweet potato noodles with garlic and cashew cream

Vegan sweet potato noodles with garlic cashew cream

Source: Sweet Potato Noodles with Garlic Cashew Cream / One Green Planet

Here’s another great gluten-free pasta option. This Garlic Cashew Cream Sweet Potato Noodle Recipe by Christine Zulkosky takes a creamy cashew sauce and serves it with sweet potato noodles, a generous helping of kale, and chunky mushrooms to give it a bite.

9. Soothing kale pesto pasta casserole

Kale pesto pasta casserole [Vegan, Gluten-Free]

Source: Soothing Kale Pesto Pasta Casserole / One Green Planet

This soothing kale pesto pasta casserole from Florian Nouh is full of texture and flavor. The crust is made from gluten-free breadcrumbs and the noodles are tossed in a kale-based pesto. The whole dish is then baked for about 15-20 minutes. It’s a nice vegan version of a classic comfort food.

10. Kale lasagna

Vegan gluten-free kale lasagna with bechamel sauce

Source: Kale Lasagne / One Green Planet

We can hardly make a list of pasta favorites and leave out the lovely lasagna. This kale lasagna from Peffe Stahl is vegan and gluten-free. This is a really simple recipe that requires a soy or oat milk based bechamel sauce layered between sheets of vegan lasagna. The kale is then sautéed with onions before joining the bechamel.

Make your pasta dishes particularly tasty and nutritious with a generous helping of kale.

Learn How To Make Plant-Based Meals At Home!

Vegan creamy ginger-coconut-kale-zucchini-spaghetti [Gluten-Free]

It is known to help reduce meat consumption and eat more plant-based foods chronic inflammation, Heart health, mental wellbeing, Fitness goals, Nutritional needs, Allergies, good health, and more! Milk consumption has also been linked to many health problems, including acne, hormonal imbalance, cancer, Prostate cancer and has many Side effects.

For those of you interested in eating more plant-based foods, we highly recommend downloading the Food Monster App – With over 15,000 delicious recipes, it is the largest herbal recipe source to reduce your ecological footprint, save animals and get healthy! And while you’re at it, we encourage you to find out about the environment and health benefits from a vegetable diet.

Here are some great resources to get you started:

For more daily published content on animals, earth, life, vegan food, health and recipes, subscribe to One Green Planet newsletter! Finally, public funding gives us a greater chance of continuing to provide you with quality content. Please note support us through donations!

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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Types of Chocolate, Explained:



You’ve seen these numbers on fancy candy bar packaging, but what do chocolate percentages mean and which one should you choose? We’ll break it down so you can make the best chocolate choice possible.

When it comes to chocolate, I used to be part of the high cocoa cult. My favorite was 70 percent, with an 82.5 percent shot every now and then. However, the more I learned about chocolate, the more I realized that the percentage had nothing to do with quality: I had greasy 85 percent bars and fantastic 40 percent bars.

That’s because the cocoa percentage is the percentage of the bar that comes straight from cocoa beans. Take my beloved 70 percent bar as an example: 70 percent of this bar is made from refined cocoa beans, and 30 percent is made from all the other ingredients like sugar, vanilla, sea salt, pop rocks, whatever.

Just because you’ve tried a 70 percent bar doesn’t mean you’ve tried them all. Everyone has a unique mouthfeel and taste. (A genius came up with the fancy sounding “mouthfeel” to describe how things feel in the mouth. In practical terms, this means whether the chocolate is grainy or smooth, melts quickly or slowly, etc.) One reason is that one chocolate bar contains significantly more cocoa butter than another. Both cocoa solids and cocoa butter are included in this 70 percent.

As I write in my book, “Bean-to-Bar Chocolate: America’s Craft Chocolate Revolution ”,“ A 70 percent bar could contain 50 percent cocoa mass and 20 percent cocoa butter; another could have 30 percent cocoa mass and 40 percent cocoa butter (that would make a very smooth, buttery bar!). To make it even more complicated, different types of beans naturally contain different amounts of cocoa butter. Some are leaner, others fatter. The natural “butteriness” of a bean changes the consistency of the resulting chocolate. “

Milk chocolate generally has a fairly low percentage, usually around 40 percent or less (Hershey’s is 11 percent). I’m in love with Zotter’s 40 percent bar diluted with “Bio Tiroler Bergmilch” and Frans smoked salt.

Dark chocolate has no legal definition in the United States (it comes under the umbrella term semi-sweet or bittersweet chocolate). It’s usually at least 55 percent, but most dark chocolate lovers enjoy 70 percent or more. I’m obsessed with a new variety called dark milk chocolate, a high-proof milk chocolate that combines the best of both worlds: you get the intense flavors of dark chocolate with the creaminess of milk chocolate. My favorite right now? Chocolate Naive’s 62 percent dark milk with porcini mushrooms. (Yes, you read that right: mushrooms!)

Then there are some dark candy bars that stamp in at 100 percent. That said, they only contain ground and refined cocoa beans, and the trick for the chocolate makers is to bring out the natural flavors of these beans to make them not only edible but also enjoyable. The best – like those from Fruition and Pralus – are far from making chocolate. I urge you to try a 100 percent bar for Valentine’s Day: you might find your true love.

But don’t forget the white chocolate either.

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