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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Teff Flour: Uses, Nutrients, and Benefits



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Teff is a traditional grain in Ethiopia and one of the country’s staple foods. It’s very nutritious and naturally gluten-free.

It is also often made into flour for cooking and baking.

With gluten-free alternatives to wheat growing in popularity, you may want to learn more about teff flour, including its benefits and uses.

This article will tell you everything you need to know about teff flour.

Teff is a tropical cereal plant that belongs to the grass family, Poaceae. It is mainly grown in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where it is believed to have originated thousands of years ago (1, 2).

It’s drought-resistant, can grow in a variety of environmental conditions, and comes in both darker and lighter varieties, with brown and ivory being the most popular (1, 2).

It’s also the smallest grain in the world, measuring only 1/100 the size of a grain of wheat.

Teff has an earthy, nutty taste. Light varieties also tend to be slightly sweet.

Much of its recent popularity in the west is due to its being gluten-free.


Teff is a tiny grain that is primarily grown in Ethiopia and has an earthy, sweet taste. It does not naturally contain gluten.

Because it is so small, teff is usually prepared and eaten as a whole grain instead of being broken down into sprouts, bran, and kernels as in wheat processing (1).

Teff can also be ground and used as gluten-free whole wheat flour.

In Ethiopia, teff flour is fermented with yeast that lives on the surface of the grain and used to make a traditional sourdough flatbread called injera.

This spongy, soft bread is usually used as the basis for Ethiopian dishes. It is made by pouring fermented teff flour batter onto a hot grill plate.

In addition, teff flour is a great gluten-free alternative to wheat flour for baking bread or making packaged foods like pasta. In addition, it is often used as a nutritional value for products containing wheat (2, 3).

How to add it to your diet

You can use teff flour instead of wheat flour in numerous dishes such as pancakes, cookies, cakes, muffins and bread, as well as gluten-free egg noodles (2).

Gluten-free recipes only require teff flour and other gluten-free options, but unless you are strictly gluten-free, you can use teff in addition to wheat flour (2).

Keep in mind that gluten-deficient teff products may not be as chewy as those made from wheat.


Teff can be cooked and eaten as whole grains or ground into flour and used to make baked goods, bread, pasta and traditional Ethiopian injera.

Teff is very nutritious. Only 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of teff flour provide (4):

  • Calories: 366
  • Protein: 12.2 grams
  • Fat: 3.7 grams
  • Carbohydrates: 70.7 grams
  • Fiber: 12.2 grams
  • Iron: 37% of the daily value (DV)
  • Calcium: 11% of the DV

It’s important to note that the nutritional composition of teff appears to vary significantly depending on the variety, growing area, and brand (1, 5).

Still, compared to other grains, teff is a good source of copper, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, and selenium (1, 5).

In addition, it is an excellent source of protein that contains all of the essential amino acids that are the building blocks of protein in your body (1).

It is particularly rich in lysine, an amino acid that other grains are often lacking. Lysine is essential for the production of proteins, hormones, enzymes, collagen, and elastin, and also supports calcium absorption, energy production, and immune function (1, 6).

However, some of the nutrients in teff flour can be poorly absorbed because they are bound to anti-nutrients like phytic acid. You can reduce the effects of these compounds through lacto-fermentation (1, 7).

To ferment teff flour, mix it with water and leave it at room temperature for a few days. Naturally occurring or added lactic acid bacteria and yeasts then break down the sugar and some of the phytic acid.


Teff flour is a rich source of protein and numerous minerals. Fermentation can reduce some of its anti-nutrients.

Teff flour has several benefits that can make it a great addition to your diet.

Naturally gluten-free

Gluten is a group of proteins found in wheat and several other grains that give dough its elastic texture.

However, some people cannot eat gluten because of an autoimmune condition called celiac disease.

Celiac disease causes your body’s immune system to attack the lining of your small intestine. This can affect the absorption of nutrients, which can lead to anemia, weight loss, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, and gas.

Additionally, some people without celiac disease may find gluten difficult to digest and may prefer to avoid it (8).

Since teff flour does not naturally contain gluten, it is a perfect gluten-free alternative to wheat flour (9).

Rich in fiber

Teff is higher in fiber than many other grains (2).

Teff flour contains up to 12.2 grams of fiber per 3.5 ounces (100 grams). In comparison, wheat and rice flour contain only 2.4 grams, while an equal serving of oat flour has 6.5 grams (1, 10, 11, 12).

It is generally recommended that women and men consume 25 and 38 grams of fiber per day, respectively. This can consist of both insoluble and soluble fiber. While some studies claim that most of the fiber in teff flour is insoluble, others have found a more even blend (1).

Most of the insoluble fiber passes through your intestines undigested. It increases stool volume and supports bowel movements (13).

Soluble fiber, on the other hand, draws water into your intestines to soften the stool. It also feeds the healthy bacteria in your gut and is involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism (13).

A high-fiber diet is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, bowel disease, and constipation (1, 14).

Rich in iron

Teff is said to be extremely high in iron, an essential mineral that uses red blood cells to transport oxygen through your body (15).

In fact, consumption of this grain has been linked to reduced rates of anemia in pregnant women and may help certain people avoid iron deficiency (16, 17, 18).

Incredibly, some studies report iron levels as high as 80 mg in 100 grams of Teff, or 444% of the DV. However, recent studies show that these staggering numbers are likely due to contamination with ferrous soil – not the grain itself (1).

Additionally, teff’s high phytic acid content means your body is unlikely to be consuming all of the iron (19).

Even so, even conservative estimates make teff a better source of iron than many other grains. For example, 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of one brand of teff flour provides 37% of the DV for iron – while the same amount of wheat flour only provides 5% (4, 10).

However, in the United States, wheat flour is usually fortified with iron. Check the nutrition label to find out exactly how much iron is in a particular product.

Lower glycemic index than wheat products

The glycemic index (GI) shows how much a food raises blood sugar levels. Foods over 70 are considered high, which means they make blood sugar rise faster, while foods under 55 are considered low. Everything in between is moderate (20, 21).

A low GI diet can be an effective way for people with diabetes to control their blood sugar (22, 23, 24).

Whole, cooked teff has a relatively low GI compared to many grains with a moderate GI of 57 (25).

This lower GI is likely due to it being eaten whole grain. Therefore, it contains more fiber, which can help prevent blood sugar spikes (1).

However, the GI changes depending on the preparation.

For example, the GI of traditional injera ranges from 79–99 and that of teff porridge ranges from 94–137 – both of which are high GI foods. This is because water gelatinizes the starch, making it quicker to absorb and digest (1).

On the flip side, teff flour bread has a GI of 74, which is still high but lower than bread made from wheat, quinoa, or buckwheat and similar to that of oat or sorghum bread (1).

While teff may have a lower GI than most grain products, keep in mind that it still has a moderate to high GI. Anyone with diabetes should still carefully control their portion sizes and keep an eye on the carbohydrate content.


Teff flour is gluten-free and therefore ideal for people with celiac disease. It’s also high in fiber and iron.

Since the production of teff flour is currently limited, it is more expensive than other gluten-free flours.

Cheaper gluten-free flours are rice, oat, amaranth, sorghum, corn, millet and buckwheat flours.

Some restaurants and manufacturers may add wheat flour to teff products like bread or pasta to make them more economical or to improve texture. Therefore, these products are unsuitable for people on a gluten-free diet (1).

If you have celiac disease, make sure that you use pure teff without products containing gluten. Always look for gluten-free certification for all teff products.


Teff flour is relatively expensive compared to other gluten-free flours. Some teff products are mixed with wheat flour, making them unsuitable for anyone who avoids gluten.

Teff is a traditional Ethiopian grain that is high in fiber, protein, and minerals. Its flour is quickly becoming a popular gluten-free alternative to wheat flour.

It’s not as common as other gluten-free flours and can be more expensive. Still, it’s a great addition to bread and other baked goods – and if you’re feeling adventurous, try your hand at making injera.

Buy teff flour online.

Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Guiding the way to thrive



Jan Juc naturopath Rebecca Winkler has always found joy in the practice of cooking nourishing meals for others.

That pastime spilled over into developing recipes and it was during lockdown that her culinary passion led her to become a qualified plant-based chef and a raw dessert chef.

Now the mum-of-two has expertly thrown all of her skills into the mix to achieve a long-held goal of producing a book.

Released as an eBook, with a print version to hopefully follow, 14 Day Whole Food Feast is a comprehensive two-week meal plan designed to nourish the body and delight the tastebuds.

Within its pages are recipes for whole food snacks, lunch and dinner meals, lunchbox ideas, and time-saving tips.

14 Day Whole Food Feast by Rebecca Winkler is available now as an eBook.

“My motivation was both personal and professional,” Rebecca says.

“On a professional note, I found so many patients were having difficulty finding family-friendly, whole food recipes to help them navigate various dietary needs.

“The recipes are easy to follow, a shopping list is provided and time frames are taken into account so slower cooked meals or more time-consuming recipes are saved for weekends.”

Rebecca says the eBook can function purely as a recipe resource or be followed meticulously for a 14-day reset.

“Food prep guidance is given at the start of each week in order to get ahead and be organized as possible.

The eBook includes lunch, dinner and snack ideas, as well as shopping lists and naturopathic advice.

“Dinners are often incorporated into leftovers for lunch the next day and naturopathic guidance is provided around ways to maximize your time by incorporating regular exercise and practicing self-care.”

The idea for the book began to brew in 2019 during a solo trip Rebecca took with colleagues which gave her the space to establish a clear vision for the content she wanted to share.

“I began developing and refining recipe, enlisting a beautiful photographer and graphics team to allow my dream to be realised.

“The long-term plan is to release a number of other eBooks and, eventually, print a hard copy, real-life book to be loved and to splash your chocolate and bolognaise sauce on. The kind of recipe book that you find yourself grabbing time and time again.”

The eBook is filled with nutritious recipes and much more.

So, what are some of Rebecca’s personal favorites featured in her carefully curated eBook?

“Ooh, that’s like trying to choose a favorite child,” she laughs.

“I know it might seem boring, but the slow-cooked bolognaise with hand-made gluten-free fettucine is an absolute favourite.
“We make it weekly in my house and every time my kids exclaim ‘this is the best bolognaise ever’.”

The slow cooked beef pie, kafir lime chicken balls and whole food cranberry bliss balls are also hard to pass up, she says.

Rebecca avoids listing ideal ingredients for people to incorporate into their diet, instead saying the most beneficial ingredients are those that make you feel at your best.

“Not everyone tolerates grains, some don’t tolerate fruit, others have difficulty digesting meat and protein.

“My advice is to listen and take note of how your body feels when you eat.

“Are you bloated, do you have pain in your gut, loose stools, headaches or fatigue?

Rebecca is a qualified naturopath, as well as being a plant-based chef and raw dessert chef.

“I am more inclined to advise people to source good quality ingredients, grow what they can, and cook from scratch as much as time and money allows.

“Eat three meals a day and snack only if you are hungry, growing, pregnant or exercising.

“Try to consume 30-35ml of water per kg of body weight. Add plenty of vegetables, fresh herbs, variety and colour.

“Our gut flora thrives on variety, so mix up your veggies, fruits, grain, legumes and proteins. Eat the rainbow.”

To get the most out of the eBook, the author suggests reading it from cover-to-cover and choosing a 14-day period where you are at home and have minimal social engagements.

Rebecca is passionate about naturopathy which she describes as a holistic, comprehensive view of the body in its entirety and “a wonderful adjunct to Western Medicine for patients as it ensures medical due diligence is exercised, adequate diagnostic testing where appropriate and an individualized approach to restoring health”.

Rebecca’s advice is to “eat the rainbow” when it comes to healthy food choices.

She says many of her clients are seeking ways to regain optimal health following extended periods of lockdown during the pandemic.

“There is no doubt that most of us found ourselves allowing more in alcohol and comfort foods over lockdown, which is nothing to feel ashamed about.

“In such a difficult, confining and overwhelming time, we sought comfort where ever it may lie for us.

“This is not a failure, it was merely a way for so many to cope. I never judge anyone’s choices, I merely try to support, understand and listen.

“Often we already know what we need to do to rebuild or move forward, simply sharing and being heard without shame or judgment is therapeutic.

“I cannot describe to you the genuine joy that seeing people thrive provides.”

14 Day Whole Food Feast retails for $19.95 and on the Rebecca Winkler website. Discover more and contact Rebecca via her Facebook page, Instagram @rebeccawinklernaturopath or email [email protected]

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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Get to know farro and other superfood whole grains



By Casey Barber, CNN

Quinoa has reached a level of superfood status not seen since the great kale takeover of the aughts. Equally embraced and mocked in pop culture, it’s become the symbol of the grain bowl generation. It’s not the only whole grain that’s worth bringing to the table, however.

The world of whole grains is wide, and if quinoa and brown rice have been the only grains on your plate, it’s time to expand your palate. Here’s an introduction to whole grains, along with tips for cooking and enjoying them.

What’s a whole grain?

The term “whole grains” encompasses all grains and seeds that are, well, whole. They retain all their edible parts: the fiber-rich outer bran layer; the carbohydrate-rich endosperm center, which makes up the bulk of the grain itself; and the inner core, or germ, which is packed with vitamins, protein and healthy fats.

On the other hand, refined grains such as white rice and all-purpose flour have been milled to remove the bran and germ, stripping away much of the fiber, protein and vitamins, and leaving only the starchy endosperm.

“A lot of people don’t realize that whole grains contain several grams of protein in addition to vitamins and antioxidants,” said Nikita Kapur, a registered dietitian nutritionist in New York City. With every serving of whole grains, “you get a ton of minerals, B vitamins and fiber, which is especially important for good health.”

So-called “ancient grains” fall under the umbrella of whole grains, though the phrase is more of a marketing term than a marker of a more nutritious option. Ancient grains refer to whole grains like millet, amaranth, kamut and, yes, quinoa that have been the staple foods of cultures for several hundred years. They are not hybridized or selectively bred varieties of grains, like most modern wheat, rice and corn.

And though quinoa has gotten all the press as a whole grain superfood, there’s good reason to try others. Trying a variety of whole grains isn’t just a way to mix up your same-old side dish routine. It’s also a chance to get a wider portfolio of minerals and more into your diet.

“Suffice to say, we need to have a more diverse plant-based diet” to get the full complement of recommended nutrients in our meals, Kapur said, “and we can’t get it from the same 10 or 20 foods.

“One grain might have more manganese, another more zinc or magnesium, and another more protein,” she added. “Try one as a pasta, one as a porridge — you do you, as long as there’s a variety.”

Familiar foods like oats, corn, brown and other colors of rice, as well as wild rice (which is an aquatic grass), are all considered whole grains, but there are many others you’ll want to add to your regular repertoire.

Some whole grains to get to know

amaranth is a tiny gluten-free grain that can be simmered until soft for a creamy polenta-like dish, but it also makes a deliciously crunchy addition to homemade energy bars or yogurt bowls when it’s been toasted. To toast amaranth seeds, cook over medium heat in a dry pan, shaking frequently until they begin to pop like minuscule popcorn kernels.

Buckwheat is gluten-free and botanically related to rhubarb, but these polygonal seeds (also called groats) don’t taste anything like fruit. You might already be familiar with buckwheat flour, used in pancakes and soba noodles, or Eastern European kasha, which is simply toasted buckwheat.

Faro is the overarching Italian name for three forms of ancient wheat: farro piccolo, or einkorn; farro medio, or emmer; and farro grande, or spelled. The farro you typically find at the store is the emmer variety, and it’s a rustic, pumped-up wheat berry that’s ideal as a grain bowl base. Or make an Italian-inspired creamy Parmesan farro risotto.

Freekeh is a wheat variety that’s harvested when unripe, then roasted for a surprisingly smoky, nutty flavor and chewy texture. Freekeh’s taste is distinctive enough that it steals the spotlight in your meals, so use it in ways that highlight its flavor. It’s fantastic in a vegetarian burrito bowl paired with spicy salsa, or in a warming chicken stew.

kamut is actually the trademarked brand name for an ancient type of wheat called Khorasan, which features large grains, a mild taste and tender texture. It’s a good, neutral substitute for brown rice in a pilaf or as a side dish. Or try this high-protein grain in a salad with bold flavors like arugula, blood orange and walnut.

millet is a gluten-free seed with a cooked texture similar to couscous. Teff is a small variety of millet that’s most frequently used as the flour base for Ethiopian injera flatbread. Try raw millet mixed into batters and doughs for a bit of crunch, like in this millet skillet cornbread recipe, or use either teff or millet cooked in a breakfast porridge.

How to cook any whole grain

While cooking times vary for each grain, there’s one way to cook any whole grain, whether it’s a tiny seed or a large, chewy kernel: Boil the grains like pasta.

Bring a large pot of water to a boil and add a handful of kosher salt. Add the grains and cook, tasting as you go, until tender. Small grains like amaranth and quinoa can cook fully in five to 15 minutes, while larger grains like farro and wild rice can take anywhere from 30 minutes to one hour — so keep an eye on your pot and check it frequently.

Drain well in a mesh strainer (to catch all those small grains) and either use immediately or allow to cool slightly, then refrigerate for later meals. Cooked whole grains can also be portioned, frozen and stored in airtight bags for up to six months.

If you want to cook your whole grains in an Instant Pot or other multicooker, this chart offers grain-to-water ratios for many of the grains mentioned here.

The CNN Wire
™ & © 2021 Cable News Network, Inc., a WarnerMedia Company. All rights reserved.

Casey Barber is a food writer, illustrator and photographer; the author of “Pierogi Love: New Takes on an Old-World Comfort Food” and “Classic Snacks Made from Scratch: 70 Homemade Versions of Your Favorite Brand-Name Treats”; and editor of the website Good. foods Stories.

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Recipes with Whole Wheat Pasta

Travel: A quaint county seat with Mayberry charm | Lifestyles – Travel



I finally ventured out for my first road trip of 2022 earlier this month. It’s been way too long since I took a little trip and it was long overdue. My last little getaway was in Chicago the week of Christmas. The day I returned I wasn’t feeling very well and an at-home test confirmed that I had COVID — again.

The first time was in November 2020 and it was a severe case that landed me in the hospital with pneumonia and difficulty breathing and then many months of recovery. Luckily this time around it just lasted a couple of weeks. At the same time I was pushing through COVID we were in the process of moving. And my Dad, who had tested positive for COVID not long before me, passed away. So, it’s been a heck of a start to 2022. A getaway was much needed.

It was a brief 24 hours in the Indianapolis area, but as always I packed a bit in and had a lot of good food. On our way down we stopped off in Rensselaer for lunch at Fenwick Farms Brewing Co. and took a little walk to check out the murals that are part of the Ren Art Walk. That evening I attended a media opening of the newly reopened Dinosphere exhibit at the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.

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It’s a place I adore and still enjoy visiting even though my kids are teenagers and young adults now. I love being greeted by the huge Bumblebee character on the way in from what is probably my favorite action move, “The Transformers.” The largest children’s museum in the world has so much to see and I’ve loved having the chance to explore it both with and without my kids.

After the event it was a quick overnight at Staybridge Suites in Plainfield, and in the morning we headed to Danville. Danville is the county seat of Hendricks County. I adore county seats with downtown squares and this is one of my favorites. On an earlier visit there we were in town for the Mayberry in the Midwest festival, which had lots of activities related to the classic TV show “The Andy Griffith Show” that was set in the fictional town of Mayberry.

Danville definitely has that charming, inviting, friendly small town vibe that feels like it could be a sitcom setting. We ate at the Mayberry Cafe where old episodes play on television screens and the menu is full of down-home, made-with-love comfort foods, with a specialty being “Aunt Bee’s Famous Fried Chicken.” I tried it and it was very tasty. The whole place made me smile like Opie after a fishing outing with his dad.

This time our dining destination was The Bread Basket. I had tried their desserts at a few events, but it was my first time dining in. It’s located in a house that was built for the president of Central Normal College in 1914 and is cute and cozy. It’s a breakfast and lunch spot, so plan to go early and be prepared for a wait during peak times (but it’s well worth it).

My Dilly Turkey Sandwich on fresh wheat nut bread with an Orchard Salad was delicious. I loved that they had a combo option where you could pick a half sandwich and half salad or cup of soup. But the desserts are the real star here. I stared at that dessert case for several minutes — and I wasn’t the only one.

I was seated next to it, and watched intently each time they removed a pie or cake from the case to cut a slice. I tried the Hummingbird Cake, which was a perfect treat without being too rich, and then noticed another that was so unique I had to get a slice to take home — the Blackberry Wine Chocolate Cake. If you go there and are overwhelmed with choices, go with this. You won’t regret it.

After lunch, we made our way over to the Hendricks County Historical Museum & Old County Jail, which is just off the square. For someone like me who loves history, this was a wonderful stop to incorporate into our day. It was built in 1866 and used as a jail all the way up until 1974. You can go into the old jail cells (two on the female side and four on the male side) and tour the sheriff’s home.

An exhibit has information and artifacts from when Central Normal College existed (later Canterbury College). There’s also a temporary chronological exhibit about music and musicians, featuring many Hoosier hitmakers.

After the visit, I took a breezy little walk around the square, where I was reminded that there is a nostalgic old movie theater. The historic Danville Royal Theater dates back to the early 1900s and shows current movies for just $5 a ticket.

It was then getting close to dinner time, so we decided to eat before we headed back home. A place in the nearby town of North Salem had been recommend to me and I am so glad we took time to visit. I chatted for a few minutes with Damiano Perillo, owner of Perillo’s Pizzeria. He’s a native of Palermo, the capital of Sicily. The food is authentic and almost all of it is made fresh daily, including their garlic rolls, marinara and alfredo sauces. The New York-style pizzas are perfection.

They even have a nearby garden where they grow many of the fresh vegetables and herbs used in their dishes. They have gluten free pastas, too, and the lady at the next table had some and was raving about it. We also tried the homemade Sicilian cannoli and the limoncello flute, and trust me when I say to definitely not skip dessert.

There was one last food stop. Although we had just eaten, I realized we’d be driving right by Rusted Silo Southern BBQ & Brewhouse in Lizton and just couldn’t pass it up. I made my husband pull in and pick up some food to go. We got the brisket and their house made pimento cheese, chorizo ​​and kielbasa and took it home. I was introduced to it last fall and there is a reason they have been voted Best BBQ in the Indy area four years in a row. I loved hearing about how this eatery located next to a railroad literally stops trains in their tracks to get food from this award-winning BBQ joint.

All three of these places — The Bread Basket, Perillo’s Pizzeria and Rusted Silo are ones that you should absolutely include in your itinerary if you happen to be in the Indianapolis area.

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