The grain that feeds the world
There are three types of herb seeds that provide more than half of the food for the world’s population. Wheat, rice and corn are eaten alone or are used as feed for animals slaughtered for human consumption. Other edible seed plants that contribute to the human diet are oats, rye, barley, millet, and sorghum. These plants are called grain by Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture.
Under the shell, a dry endosperm of starch surrounds the germ or embryo, which is the seed itself. When the germ sprouts, enzymes begin to unfold starch in maltose and dextrins. The approximate proportions of the three elements of a seed are 2% germ, 13% husk and 85% starch. The water content is low, so seeds resist abuse.
About 9,000 years ago, hunters and gatherers in the valley of the Euphrates discovered that if they kept the seeds carefully, they were edible almost indefinitely. Among the grains they harvested was a primitive type of wheat that began to grow about 6,000 years ago. The type most widely used in developed countries is the variety for bread Triticum vulgare, rich in gluten, a complex protein that has one useful property: it becomes elastic when mixed with water.
When preparing a wheat flour dough with water and yeast or another sourdough, the gentle fermentation produces carbon dioxide. Elastic gluten expands and traps gas bubbles in the dough. Strong flour, rich in gluten, makes a loaf with a fluffy texture and great volume. Weak, low-gluten flour is ideal for biscuits, cakes, and biscuits.
The most widely grown grain is wheat: almost 600 million tons per year on approximately 230 million hectares of land. It grows best in temperate climates with a rainfall of 300 to 900 mm per year. Durum wheat is high in protein, ideal for dry pasta and grows in drier climates. Buckwheat (the flour of which is used to make cupcakes in some countries) is not exactly a grain, but it is used as such.
Tuscarora, or rice from India (Zizania aquatica), which was used as food for the indigenous tribes of the North American continent, is a different grass seed than rice, on the basis of which almost half of the world’s population is fed. In India it has been used since 3,000 BC. Cultivated. Since rice needs plenty of water and sun, it grows best in places where it can be watered. The nuances of 25 to 50 days are planted with 5 to 10 cm of water from the pots on the moist fields to ripen. These grains lack gluten, vitamins A, C, and B12, and are lower in protein, lipids, and fiber than most grains.
Corn has a lower food value than other grains and does not contain gluten. It was the support of the Aztecs, Mayans, and other ancient American civilizations. There is evidence that corn production dates back 7,000 years. The modern corn plant is a hybrid made from several related species, one of which may have been a plant called teosinte, from a Nahuatl word meaning “ear of God”. Total global production of this grain remains important for wheat. The United States produces about 200 million tons annually, nearly half of the world’s harvest, much of which is used as forage.
Trade, climate and preferences in local diets determine which grain is produced in a region. For example, barley can grow in colder climates and on soils that are poorer than wheat. Although it was previously used to make bread, it doesn’t have enough gluten to ferment. Much of the barley production is used as fodder and brewery. For this purpose, it is sprouted to make malt.
Until the mid-19th century, bread was made from rye flour in Northern Europe, as its resistance to cold allows it to grow closer to the poles than any other grain. It is low in gluten and produces a dense, dough-like bread. Oats, grown since the Bronze Age, are nutritious but do not contain gluten. It is processed as muesli for breakfast and serves as feed. Oats grow best in cold and humid locations, while sorghum can withstand extreme heat and dry conditions.
A small grain crop that grows on poor soils is millet; Once ground it is prepared as unleavened bread or boiled with milk and eaten as hot muesli.
The “good side” of flour: meet wheat germ
Wheat germ is the nourishing heart of wheat grain . When processing refined flour, this “germ” is removed during grinding. This is why white flour has so little nutritional value. While it’s the smallest part of the grain, the germ is full of nutrients, including vitamin E, thiamine, folic acid, magnesium, and zinc. In addition, it is one of the few parts of the plant that naturally contains the whole B vitamin complex .
Some medical uses
Allergies, asthma, high cholesterol, chest pain, stress, improved immunity, dry skin, blood sugar regulation, heart health, menstrual cramps, suffocation, warts.
- Vitamin E in wheat germ contains a powerful antioxidant associated with heart health and also with a strengthened immune system.
- Wheat germ fat (1.5 grams in a 2-tablespoon serving) is first and foremost polyunsaturated fat what can help lower LDL cholesterol levels in replacing saturated fats in the diet.
- And since it’s a complex, slow-digesting carbohydrate, it’s wheat germ has a low glycemic index (GI) and could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
How can I incorporate it into my diet?
Whenever you can, add a small amount of this delicious whole grain product to your cooking or baking. Its typical seed taste Improves banana or zapallitos bread , ricepudding , Coffee cake, apple crunches, Pizza dough bread , Batter for salty cakes and even homemade cookies.
It can be sprinkled over muesli or salads; Mix it up when making a meatloaf, hamburgers, or vegetarian burgers. or Use it as a replacement in whole or in part, e.g. Breadcrumbs for breadcrumbs Hopping fish, chicken or vegetables.
You can find the wheat germ in the grain gondola of the supermarket and in dietetics. Wheat germ is sold in its natural form and is also roasted. Once opened, Keep the container tightly closed and refrigerated to keep it from going rancid. Defatted wheat germ contains much less vitamin E and does not require refrigeration. it can be stored in the closet.
Oats: a great source of nutrients
It is usually eaten at breakfast and used for the bakery, however can be added to many other meals ;; it can also be used to thicken soups and sauces; to give the fillings a softer texture and to sprinkle fruit salads on top. Oats have beneficial effects on cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar and gastrointestinal health.
For the same weight, oats contain a higher concentration of protein, fats, manganese, thiamine, folacin and vitamin E than other non-fortified grains. It also contains polyphenols and saponins, powerful antioxidants with healing properties.
- Oat bran is high in beta-glucan, a soluble fiber that lowers cholesterol and potentially lowers the risk of a heart attack. To reduce blood cholesterol by about 5% and the risk of heart attack by 10%, a person needs to take 3 g of beta-glucan per day – the amount that 100 g of oats contains.
Including oats in a diet low in saturated fat and as part of a healthy lifestyle will help lower cholesterol levels. Some studies have shown that oats not only lower LDL cholesterol, but can also raise HDL cholesterol levels.
- Regular consumption of oatmeal can reduce the risk of heart disease in women in ways other than lowering cholesterol levels. The Nurses Health Study found that those who ate oats 5 or more times a week reduced their risk of heart disease by 29%. It’s believed that this effect isn’t just due to soluble fiber – antioxidants also play an important role.
- Oats contain a unique combination of antioxidants, including avenantramides, which prevent LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) from turning into a rusty form that damages arteries. Yale University researchers found that the harmful health effects that occur after consuming fatty foods when blood flow is slower can be offset by eating a large bowl of oats.
- Oatmeal needs to be digested, which creates a longer feeling of satisfaction. It is believed that both protein and fiber from oats contribute to this effect. In a study comparing oatmeal to sugary cereal flakes, it was found that those who ate oats for breakfast burned one-third fewer calories at lunch, which helped them control their weight.
- Oats also help lower blood pressure. A study conducted in Minnesota analyzed a group of people who were taking drugs for high blood pressure. Half of the group were instructed to eat 5 grams of soluble fiber per day, which was found in one and a half cups of oats and oatmeal, while the other half ate cereals and foods low in soluble fiber. Those who consumed oats experienced a depressurization. Oats have also been shown to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, a valuable resource for diabetes control. Human studies have confirmed that soluble fiber in oats reduces sugar and insulin levels after consumption in both healthy people and diabetics. While oats are very low in gluten, many people with celiac disease claim that they don’t have the same symptoms as other gluten foods.
- It is recommended Introducing small amounts of oats into the diet check for a side effect; Limit the amount to no more than 50 g per day. Children and people with severe celiac disease should consult a doctor before consuming oatmeal.
There are many types of oats
- Oat flakes are only processed minimally: only the outer shell is separated. It’s nutritious but pasty and needs to be soaked before cooking.
- Rolled or flaked oatmeal flour is cooked quickly.
- Instant oats consist of very thin and pre-cooked flakes that need to be mixed with hot liquid. It usually has a buildup of salt and flavor.
- Excellent source of soluble fiber.
- Source of iron, magnesium, zinc and vitamin E, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, folic acid and other B vitamins.
The unexpected correlation between whole grains and waist size
According to a new study, you no longer have to be afraid of bread. While you may already know that consuming whole grains instead of processed bread can lower your blood sugar and help your heart, a recent study from Tufts University just confirmed that whole grains can reduce your waist size.
What’s the story with grain?
Believe it or not, grains are tough seeds. It is eaten whole or ground into a fine, easily consumable powder. While substances like wheat, rye, barley, rice, or cornmeal are all considered grain products, preparing and consuming them can make all the difference to your health.
In general, there are two ways that grains can be prepared: whole grains and refined grains. Whole grains are the more unprocessed of the two because they contain the entire core and are not stripped of bran and germs. They also have a thicker texture, more fiber, and a shorter shelf life. Whole grains can include anything from whole grain breads to oatmeal or brown rice, all of which are high in fiber and have an earthy taste than their refined counterparts.
In refined grains, however, bran and germ are processed to create a lighter, smoother texture. Often times they are fortified with vitamins and nutrients, but rarely do they contain the same nutritional benefits as whole grains. In this category you will find white flour, white bread and white rice.
Are Whole Grains Really That Much Better Than Refined Grains?
Life may be complicated, but grains aren’t: Studies show that excess refined grains can cause irreparable harm to your health.
In particular, a February 2021 study found that consuming a large amount of processed grains resulted in a 47% increase in stroke risk, a 33% increase in heart disease risk, and 27% increase over your lifetime. Probability of previous death. The products examined in this study included pasta and white bread, dessert items such as cakes and cookies, or breakfast cereals and crackers.
On the other hand, Harvard researchers found that consuming whole grains reduced the risk of cancer by 20%. In another meta-study, participants over 50 were 30% less likely to die from an inflammatory condition such as asthma, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, or other autoimmune diseases.
Some scientists even believe that processed grains contain “anti-nutrients” that prevent the body from getting essential vitamins and minerals from other foods, and that whole grains prevent the body from triggering an inflammatory response.
How do they affect the waist size?
While you may have already known that whole grains make a long, happy life possible, they can benefit your exterior as well as your interior.
The above-mentioned 2021 study by Tufts University measured 3,100 participants ages 50+ and collected data on their various grain eating habits every four years. Surprisingly, the numbers showed that for every four-year check-in, the waist size of those who ate mostly refined grains increased by up to 2.5 cm. However, those who stuck with whole grains had a waist gain of no more than half an inch.
Why this is so, researchers have suggested that the fiber in whole grains can prevent blood sugar spikes, which helps keep your metabolism stable. A lead researcher on the study tells US News that the nutrients found in whole grains can also work in synergy with the other nutrients in the diet and that, while research is still underway, the interplay between various dietary vitamins and minerals in the diet The intestinal system could potentially determine their long-term health.
Take that away
While it may seem easy to tell the difference between these two grains, it can become difficult if you don’t think critically about your food choices. Healthline reports that you shouldn’t be fooled by a “whole grain” label on something like processed grains as if it might contain germs and bran. The extent to which the grain has been pulverized has effectively eliminated the nutritional value.
The most important thing is the following: Whole grains ensure a longer lifespan and a slim waist. But you still have to use your noodle when choosing grains; If something says it contains whole grains but the nutritional information says it is high in sugar or carbohydrates, leave it on the shelf.
Good Carbs, Bad Carbs — How to Make the Right Choices
The amount of carbohydrates we should be consuming is a much debated topic.
The dietary guidelines suggest that we get about half of our calories from carbohydrates.
On the other hand, some claim that carbohydrates can lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes and that most people should avoid them.
There are good arguments on both sides, but our bodies need carbohydrates to function well.
This article goes into detail about carbohydrates, their health effects, and how to make the best choices for yourself.
Carbohydrates, or carbohydrates, are molecules with atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
In nutrition, “carbohydrates” refers to one of the three macronutrients. The other two are protein and fat.
Dietary carbohydrates can be divided into three main categories:
- Sugar. These are sweet, short-chain carbohydrates found in foods. Examples are glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose.
- Strengthen. These are long chains of glucose molecules that are eventually broken down into glucose in the digestive system.
- Fiber. Humans cannot digest fiber, but the bacteria in the digestive system can use some of it. Also, eating fiber is vital to your overall health.
One of the primary purposes of carbohydrates in our diet is to provide energy to our bodies.
Most of the carbohydrates are broken down or converted into glucose, which can be used as energy. Carbohydrates can also be converted into fat (stored energy) for later use.
Fiber is an exception. It doesn’t provide energy directly, but it does feed the friendly bacteria in the digestive system. These bacteria can use the fiber to produce fatty acids that some of our cells can use for energy.
Sugar alcohols are also classified as carbohydrates. They taste sweet but usually aren’t high in calories.
Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients. The main types of carbohydrates in food are sugar, starch, and fiber.
“Whole” vs. “Refined” carbohydrates
Not all carbohydrates are created equal.
There are many different types of carbohydrate foods that can vary in their health effects.
Carbohydrates are sometimes referred to as “simple” versus “complex” or “whole” versus “refined”.
Whole carbohydrates are unprocessed and contain the fiber found naturally in the diet, while refined carbohydrates have been processed and the natural fiber has been removed or altered.
Examples of whole carbohydrates are:
- Andean millet
- full grain
On the other hand, refined carbohydrates include:
- sugar-sweetened drinks
- White bread
- other items made from white flour
Numerous studies show that consumption of refined carbohydrates is linked to health conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (1, 2, 3).
Refined carbohydrates tend to drive blood sugar levels up, leading to a subsequent crash that can induce hunger pangs and lead to food cravings (4, 5).
In addition, they usually lack important nutrients. In other words, they are “empty” calories.
There are also added sugars that should be limited as they have been linked to all sorts of chronic diseases (6, 7, 8, 9).
However, not all carbohydrate foods should be demonized because of the negative health effects of processed products.
Whole carbohydrate sources are loaded with nutrients and fiber and don’t cause the same spikes and dips in blood sugar levels.
Numerous studies of high-fiber carbohydrates, including vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains, show that consumption is linked to improved metabolic health and a lower risk of disease (10, 11, 12, 13, 14).
Not all carbohydrates are created equal. Refined carbohydrates have been linked to obesity and metabolic disorders, but unprocessed carbohydrates have many health benefits.
No discussion of carbohydrates is complete without mentioning low-carbohydrate diets.
These types of diets limit carbohydrates while allowing plenty of protein and fat.
Although there are studies showing that a low-carb diet can help you lose weight, they usually focus on people with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and / or type 2 diabetes.
Some of these studies show that a low-carb diet can promote weight loss and lead to improvements in various health markers, including HDL “good” cholesterol, blood sugar, blood pressure, and others compared to the standard “low-fat” diet (15, 16, 17, 18, 19 ).
However, a review of more than 1,000 studies found that low-carbohydrate diets produced positive results in less than and after 6–11 months, but after 2 years there was no significant effect on cardiovascular risk factors (20).
In addition, a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1999-2010 that analyzed low-carbohydrate diets and the risk of death found that those who consumed the least amount of carbohydrates were prone to die prematurely from all causes, including Stroke, cancer, and coronary artery disease (21, 22, 23).
Just because low-carbohydrate diets can be beneficial for weight loss for some people, they are not the answer for everyone.
“Carbohydrates” are not the cause of obesity
Although limiting carbohydrates can lead to weight loss, it does not mean that the consumption of carbohydrates in itself caused the weight gain.
This is actually a myth that has been debunked.
While it’s true that added sugars and refined carbohydrates are linked to an increased risk of obesity, the same is not true of high-fiber, whole-carbohydrate sources.
In fact, people have been eating carbohydrates in some form for thousands of years.
But the rate of obesity development began to rise since the mid-20th century, increasing around 1980 when 4.8 percent of men and 7.9 percent of women were obese.
Today our numbers have grown exponentially and 42.4 percent of adults are obese (24).
It is also worth noting that some populations have maintained excellent health while eating a high-carbohydrate diet.
The Okinawa population and Kitavan islanders, who get a significant portion of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, have one of the longest life expectancies (25).
What they have in common is that they eat real, unprocessed food.
However, populations that consume large amounts of refined carbohydrates and processed foods tend to be at greater risk of developing negative health outcomes.
People consumed carbohydrates long before the obesity epidemic, and there are many examples of populations who have maintained excellent health despite a high-carbohydrate diet.
Carbohydrates are not “essential,” but many foods that contain carbohydrates are incredibly healthy
Many people on a low-carb diet claim that carbohydrates are not an essential nutrient.
This may be true to some extent, but they are an important part of a balanced diet.
Some believe that the brain doesn’t need the recommended 130 grams of carbohydrates per day. While some areas of the brain can use ketones, the brain relies on carbohydrates to provide its fuel (26, 27).
In addition, diets high in carbohydrate foods such as vegetables and fruits offer a variety of health benefits.
While it is possible to survive even on a carbohydrate-free diet, this is likely not an optimal choice as you will be missing out on plant-based foods that are scientifically proven.
Carbohydrates are not an “essential” nutrient.
However, many high-carbohydrate plant-based foods are loaded with beneficial nutrients so you may not feel optimal if you avoid them.
How to make the right decisions
As a general rule, carbohydrates in their natural, high-fiber form are healthy, while carbohydrates without fiber are not healthy.
If it’s a whole food with a single ingredient, it is likely a healthy food for most people, regardless of the carbohydrate content.
Instead of looking at carbohydrates as either “good” or “bad”, focus on increasing whole and complex options over the processed ones.
In nutrition, things are seldom black and white. But the following foods are a better source of carbohydrates.
- Vegetables. All of them. It’s best to eat a variety of vegetables every day.
- Whole fruits. Apples, bananas, strawberries, etc.
- Legumes. Lentils, kidney beans, peas, etc.
- Nuts. Almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, etc.
- Seeds. Chia seeds and pumpkin seeds.
- Full grain. Choose grains that are really whole, like in pure oats, quinoa, brown rice, etc.
- Tubers. Potatoes, sweet potatoes, etc.
These foods may be acceptable in moderation to some people, but many do best if they avoid them as much as possible.
- Sugary drinks. These are sodas, fruit juices with added sugar, and beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup.
- White bread. These are refined carbohydrates that are low in essential nutrients and have a negative impact on metabolic health. This applies to most commercially available breads.
- Pastries, cookies and cakes. These foods are usually very high in sugar and refined wheat.
- Ice cream. Most ice creams are very high in sugar, although there are exceptions.
- Candies and chocolates. If you want to eat chocolate, choose good quality dark chocolate.
- French fries and potato chips. Whole potatoes are healthy. However, french fries and potato chips do not offer the nutritional benefits of whole potatoes.
Carbohydrates in their natural, high-fiber form are generally healthy.
Processed foods containing sugar and refined carbohydrates do not provide the same nutritional benefits as carbohydrates in their natural form and are more likely to lead to negative health outcomes.
Low carb is great for some, but others work best on high carbohydrates
There is no one size fits all solution in diet.
The “optimal” carbohydrate intake depends on numerous factors, such as:
- Metabolic health
- physical activity
- Food culture
- personal preference
If you are overweight or have conditions such as metabolic syndrome and / or type 2 diabetes, you may be sensitive to carbohydrates.
In this case, it is likely to be beneficial to reduce carbohydrate intake.
On the flip side, if you’re just trying to stay healthy, there is probably no reason for you to avoid “carbohydrates.” However, it is still important to eat as much whole foods with just one ingredient as possible.
In fact, if your body type is naturally lean and / or you are very physically active, you can function much better with lots of carbohydrates in your diet.
For more information about the right amount of carbohydrates for you, talk to your doctor.
Making wise food choices – The Australian Jewish News
As we get older, we often need fewer kilojoules because we are less active than we were when we were younger. However, we still need a similar amount of nutrients, sometimes more. This change in dietary needs means that our food choices must be nutritious while also being appetizing and enjoyable in order to maintain a healthy, regular appetite.
1. Enjoy different foods. Appetite can often decrease as you age, so consuming a wide variety of foods can help keep the food interesting. Eat nutrient-rich foods from all five food groups on a daily basis, including:
♦ lots of vegetables, legumes (eg baked beans, kidney beans and chickpeas) and fruit;
♦ lots of grains, including bread, rice, pasta, and noodles – preferably whole grains;
♦ lean meat, fish, poultry and / or alternatives;
♦ Milk, yoghurt, cheese and / or alternatives – choose low-fat varieties if possible.
Discretionary foods such as lollies, chocolates, soft drinks and cakes do not fit into the food groups. These are not needed for our body and should only be consumed from time to time or in small amounts.
2. Drink plenty of water. As we get older, we often don’t feel thirsty, even when our body needs fluids. We must have regular beverages, which can include water and other beverages such as soda water, fruit juice, and milk. Small amounts of tea and coffee can also be included.
3. Make changes for good health
Fiber: Choose high fiber foods like fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grain breads and cereals to promote good colon health.
Protein: Make sure you eat high protein foods like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, soybeans, and nuts. Our need for protein increases when we get over 70 years old – protein in our diet helps wound healing, which can be important as older people tend to experience more injuries and surgeries.
Calcium: Enjoy foods rich in calcium such as low-fat milk, cheese, and custard
Yogurt, used to prevent or slow the progression of osteoporosis. Calcium-fortified soy milk and fish with soft, edible bones like canned salmon or sardines are also good sources of calcium.
Vitamin D: Vitamin D is also important for bone health in older adults. We get vitamin D mainly from sunlight and smaller amounts from foods including: margarine, dairy products, oily fish, cheese and eggs. If you are mostly caged indoors and not exposed to a lot of sunlight, you should seek advice on vitamin D supplements from a doctor.
Limit Saturated Fats and Salt: Limit the saturated fats you eat and keep track of your total fat intake. Limit your use of salt and choose low-salt foods. Unfortunately, over the years, our sense of taste can decrease. But instead of adding
Salt, take a look at other ways to flavor food, such as: B. with spices or fresh herbs.
4th Eat to suit your lifestyle: The amount and type of food we eat can be affected by lifestyle changes as we age. These can include: lack of energy or motivation to prepare food, feeling lonely or anxious, not feeling hungry, having trouble swallowing or chewing, decreased sense of taste, and not being as physically active. These lifestyle changes often result in meals being skipped and generally poorly eaten. So use strategies and simple ways to encourage regular meals.
5. Tips for eating regularly
♦ Eat at a similar time each day to build a routine.
♦ Use ready-made meals such as frozen vegetables, canned fruit or ready-made meals (choose the low-salt and low-sugar variant). These take less time and energy.
Eating small, regular meals instead of just a few larger meals will help you get all of the nutrients you need without having to eat a lot at once.
♦ Avoid drinking with meals as this can fill you up and affect your appetite.
♦ When you feel tired, choose moist or softer foods so that you don’t have to use as much force to chew and swallow.
♦ Adding herbs, spices and spices (e.g. lemon juice) to meals adds flavor to the food.
♦ Seek help from friends, family, or other non-profit organization such as meals-on-wheels.
More information is available at www.eatforhealth.gov.au.
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