Oyster mushrooms or Pleurotus species are a group of gill mushrooms.
There are approximately 40 types of oyster mushrooms, including Pleurotus ostreatus (or P. ostreatus), commonly known as the American oyster mushroom. All types are edible and are commonly enjoyed in dishes such as pasta and stir-fries (1).
They are known for their impressive health benefits and contain a variety of powerful botanicals. In fact, they have been used in traditional medicinal approaches for centuries (1, 2).
This article covers seven impressive benefits of oyster mushrooms.
Oyster mushrooms are loaded with fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients. They’re also low in carbohydrates, so they’re great choices for people following low-carbohydrate eating habits.
Here is the nutritional content of 1 cup (86 grams) of raw P. ostreatus oyster mushrooms (3):
- Calories: 28
- Carbohydrates: 5 grams
- Protein: 3 grams
- Fiber: 2 grams
- Niacin: 27% of the daily value (DV)
- Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5): 22% of the DV
- Folic acid: 8% of the DV
- Choline: 8% of the DV
- Potassium: 8% of the DV
- Iron: 6% of the DV
- Phosphorus: 8% of the DV
- Zinc: 6% of the DV
The mushrooms also contain lesser amounts of other nutrients, including vitamin D and selenium.
Oyster mushrooms are a good source of fiber, vegetable protein, and a variety of vitamins and minerals.
Oyster mushrooms contain antioxidants, substances that help reduce cell damage in your body (4).
For example, seven phenolic compounds have been detected in P. ostreatus extracts, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and naringenin, all of which act as antioxidants in your body (5, 6, 7, 8).
These mushrooms also contain the amino acid ergothioneine, which has powerful antioxidant effects (9).
A 2007 study in rodents found that treatment with oyster mushroom extract improved antioxidant levels and lowered certain markers of inflammation, including malondialdehyde (MDA), in older rats (10).
Similarly, a 2020 rat study found the extract exhibited antioxidant effects and helped reduce liver damage caused by toxic chemicals (11).
Additionally, a 2016 test-tube study found that gray oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) extract inhibited oxidative damage to human arterial cells and prevented the oxidation of LDL (bad) cholesterol, possibly thanks to the amino acid ergothioneine (12).
The oxidation of LDL (bad) cholesterol is involved in the process of atherosclerosis, in which plaque forms in the arteries that can lead to heart disease (12).
Although animal and test-tube studies suggest that oyster mushrooms may provide antioxidants and protect against cell damage, more human studies are needed.
Oyster mushrooms are a good source of antioxidants. Test tube and animal studies have shown that they can protect against cell damage, but human studies are needed to confirm this.
Oyster mushrooms can promote heart health by lowering risk factors for heart disease such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure.
P. ostreatus is particularly rich in various compounds that are beneficial for heart health, including fibers called beta-glucans (13).
Beta-glucans are fermented by gut bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids, which can help lower cholesterol production in your body. Interestingly, P. ostreatus provides twice as many beta-glucans as white button mushrooms (A. bisporus) (14).
A small randomized control study from 2011 in 20 people found that consuming a soup containing 30 g of dried P. ostreatus for 21 days reduced triglyceride, total cholesterol and oxidized LDL cholesterol levels (bad) compared to placebo treatment ( 15).
A 2020 review of eight human studies also found that taking P. ostreatus helped lower blood sugar, triglycerides, blood pressure, and insulin levels, which could lower the risk of heart disease.
However, the authors acknowledged that all available studies have a high risk of bias and that future well-designed studies will be needed to better understand how ingestion of P. ostreatus can improve heart health (16).
Some research suggests that eating oyster mushrooms may lower risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure and cholesterol. However, better designed human studies are needed.
As well as promoting heart health, oyster mushrooms can help regulate blood sugar levels.
A study of 22 people with and without type 2 diabetes found that taking powdered P. ostreatus lowered blood sugar levels after meals. The authors speculated that the fungi increased sugar consumption in body tissue and at the same time inhibited certain blood sugar-increasing proteins (16, 17).
Similarly, a 2007 study of 30 hospital patients with type 2 diabetes found that consuming 150 grams of cooked P. ostreatus daily for 7 days reduced fasting blood sugar by 22% and post-meal blood sugar by an average of 23% (16, 18)).
After participants stopped taking the fungus treatment for 1 week, fasting and post-meal blood sugar increased an average of 13% and 20%, respectively. The treatment also significantly lowered blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the participants (16, 18).
In addition, a study of 27 men with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure found that treatment with 3 g of powdered P. ostreatus powder per day for 3 months significantly increased hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a marker of long-term blood sugar control reduced (16, 19).
A 2020 review found that these potential blood sugar lowering effects were due to the high concentration of beta-glucans in the mushroom, as this type of fiber slows the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates (16).
Studies in people with and without diabetes have shown that oyster mushrooms can improve blood sugar levels and other aspects of health when taken as a supplement or as part of the diet.
Oyster mushrooms can support your immune system in a number of ways.
For example, pleurane – a type of beta-glucan fiber derived from P. ostreatus – has been shown to have immunomodulating properties. In addition, the mushrooms can have antiviral and antibacterial effects.
In a 130-day study of 90 people with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), treatment with a combined pleural, vitamin C, and zinc supplement improved HSV-1 symptoms and reduced the duration and severity of respiratory symptoms stronger than vitamin C alone (20).
Treatment with pleurane has also been shown to significantly improve symptoms in children with recurrent respiratory infections and significantly reduce the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes (21, 22).
In addition, an 8-week study in 41 people found that, compared to placebo, daily intake of an oyster mushroom extract boosted the immune system by activating interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a molecule that plays a crucial role in protecting against infection ( 23).
These mushrooms have also been shown to have antiviral and antibacterial effects (24, 25).
However, studies are needed that focus on the potential immune health boosting properties of whole oyster mushrooms – rather than just extracts and supplements.
Researchers have speculated that certain oyster mushroom extracts might support the immune system. However, to learn more, human studies are needed that specifically focus on the immune benefits of consuming the mushrooms.
In addition to the potential benefits listed above, research suggests that oyster mushrooms may be beneficial for health in other ways:
- Possible anti-tumor properties. Research on test tubes and animals suggest that these fungi can have anti-tumor effects. However, there is a lack of human research (26, 27, 28).
- Gut health benefits. A rodent study from 2021 found that supplementing obese rats’ diet with oyster mushrooms decreased the growth of pathogenic bacteria and increased the production of beneficial short-chain fatty acids in their intestines (29).
- Anti-inflammatory effect. These mushrooms contain anti-inflammatory compounds. A 2020 rat study found that oral treatment with P. ostreatus extract significantly reduced induced paw inflammation (30).
Oyster mushrooms can have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and gut health benefits. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.
As well as offering potential health benefits, these mushrooms are valued for their culinary uses. All of its parts are edible, including the caps, gills, and stems.
Here are some ways to include oyster mushrooms in your diet:
- Add them to soups and stews.
- Cook and add to pasta and cereal dishes.
- Fry them with olive oil and garlic for a nutritious side dish.
- Chop and add to sauces and gravy.
- Use them in egg dishes like frittatas, omelets, and quiches.
- Grill them on a skewer with vegetables and a source of protein like shrimp or chicken.
- Roast them in the oven.
As you can see, they can be cooked in many ways. So don’t be afraid to try them in your favorite recipes.
Oyster mushrooms are delicious and go well with a wide variety of foods. Use them in meals like soups, stews, pasta dishes, and stir-fries.
Oyster mushrooms are a popular type of mushroom that has been linked with several health benefits.
Not only are they highly nutritious, but they can also be beneficial for heart and immune system health, promote healthy blood sugar control, and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Try adding these versatile mushrooms to your diet by using them in dishes like pasta, stews, and omelets.
Guiding the way to thrive
Jan Juc naturopath Rebecca Winkler has always found joy in the practice of cooking nourishing meals for others.
That pastime spilled over into developing recipes and it was during lockdown that her culinary passion led her to become a qualified plant-based chef and a raw dessert chef.
Now the mum-of-two has expertly thrown all of her skills into the mix to achieve a long-held goal of producing a book.
Released as an eBook, with a print version to hopefully follow, 14 Day Whole Food Feast is a comprehensive two-week meal plan designed to nourish the body and delight the tastebuds.
Within its pages are recipes for whole food snacks, lunch and dinner meals, lunchbox ideas, and time-saving tips.
14 Day Whole Food Feast by Rebecca Winkler is available now as an eBook.
“My motivation was both personal and professional,” Rebecca says.
“On a professional note, I found so many patients were having difficulty finding family-friendly, whole food recipes to help them navigate various dietary needs.
“The recipes are easy to follow, a shopping list is provided and time frames are taken into account so slower cooked meals or more time-consuming recipes are saved for weekends.”
Rebecca says the eBook can function purely as a recipe resource or be followed meticulously for a 14-day reset.
“Food prep guidance is given at the start of each week in order to get ahead and be organized as possible.
The eBook includes lunch, dinner and snack ideas, as well as shopping lists and naturopathic advice.
“Dinners are often incorporated into leftovers for lunch the next day and naturopathic guidance is provided around ways to maximize your time by incorporating regular exercise and practicing self-care.”
The idea for the book began to brew in 2019 during a solo trip Rebecca took with colleagues which gave her the space to establish a clear vision for the content she wanted to share.
“I began developing and refining recipe, enlisting a beautiful photographer and graphics team to allow my dream to be realised.
“The long-term plan is to release a number of other eBooks and, eventually, print a hard copy, real-life book to be loved and to splash your chocolate and bolognaise sauce on. The kind of recipe book that you find yourself grabbing time and time again.”
The eBook is filled with nutritious recipes and much more.
So, what are some of Rebecca’s personal favorites featured in her carefully curated eBook?
“Ooh, that’s like trying to choose a favorite child,” she laughs.
“I know it might seem boring, but the slow-cooked bolognaise with hand-made gluten-free fettucine is an absolute favourite.
“We make it weekly in my house and every time my kids exclaim ‘this is the best bolognaise ever’.”
The slow cooked beef pie, kafir lime chicken balls and whole food cranberry bliss balls are also hard to pass up, she says.
Rebecca avoids listing ideal ingredients for people to incorporate into their diet, instead saying the most beneficial ingredients are those that make you feel at your best.
“Not everyone tolerates grains, some don’t tolerate fruit, others have difficulty digesting meat and protein.
“My advice is to listen and take note of how your body feels when you eat.
“Are you bloated, do you have pain in your gut, loose stools, headaches or fatigue?
Rebecca is a qualified naturopath, as well as being a plant-based chef and raw dessert chef.
“I am more inclined to advise people to source good quality ingredients, grow what they can, and cook from scratch as much as time and money allows.
“Eat three meals a day and snack only if you are hungry, growing, pregnant or exercising.
“Try to consume 30-35ml of water per kg of body weight. Add plenty of vegetables, fresh herbs, variety and colour.
“Our gut flora thrives on variety, so mix up your veggies, fruits, grain, legumes and proteins. Eat the rainbow.”
To get the most out of the eBook, the author suggests reading it from cover-to-cover and choosing a 14-day period where you are at home and have minimal social engagements.
Rebecca is passionate about naturopathy which she describes as a holistic, comprehensive view of the body in its entirety and “a wonderful adjunct to Western Medicine for patients as it ensures medical due diligence is exercised, adequate diagnostic testing where appropriate and an individualized approach to restoring health”.
Rebecca’s advice is to “eat the rainbow” when it comes to healthy food choices.
She says many of her clients are seeking ways to regain optimal health following extended periods of lockdown during the pandemic.
“There is no doubt that most of us found ourselves allowing more in alcohol and comfort foods over lockdown, which is nothing to feel ashamed about.
“In such a difficult, confining and overwhelming time, we sought comfort where ever it may lie for us.
“This is not a failure, it was merely a way for so many to cope. I never judge anyone’s choices, I merely try to support, understand and listen.
“Often we already know what we need to do to rebuild or move forward, simply sharing and being heard without shame or judgment is therapeutic.
“I cannot describe to you the genuine joy that seeing people thrive provides.”
14 Day Whole Food Feast retails for $19.95 and on the Rebecca Winkler website. Discover more and contact Rebecca via her Facebook page, Instagram @rebeccawinklernaturopath or email [email protected]
Get to know farro and other superfood whole grains
By Casey Barber, CNN
Quinoa has reached a level of superfood status not seen since the great kale takeover of the aughts. Equally embraced and mocked in pop culture, it’s become the symbol of the grain bowl generation. It’s not the only whole grain that’s worth bringing to the table, however.
The world of whole grains is wide, and if quinoa and brown rice have been the only grains on your plate, it’s time to expand your palate. Here’s an introduction to whole grains, along with tips for cooking and enjoying them.
What’s a whole grain?
The term “whole grains” encompasses all grains and seeds that are, well, whole. They retain all their edible parts: the fiber-rich outer bran layer; the carbohydrate-rich endosperm center, which makes up the bulk of the grain itself; and the inner core, or germ, which is packed with vitamins, protein and healthy fats.
On the other hand, refined grains such as white rice and all-purpose flour have been milled to remove the bran and germ, stripping away much of the fiber, protein and vitamins, and leaving only the starchy endosperm.
“A lot of people don’t realize that whole grains contain several grams of protein in addition to vitamins and antioxidants,” said Nikita Kapur, a registered dietitian nutritionist in New York City. With every serving of whole grains, “you get a ton of minerals, B vitamins and fiber, which is especially important for good health.”
So-called “ancient grains” fall under the umbrella of whole grains, though the phrase is more of a marketing term than a marker of a more nutritious option. Ancient grains refer to whole grains like millet, amaranth, kamut and, yes, quinoa that have been the staple foods of cultures for several hundred years. They are not hybridized or selectively bred varieties of grains, like most modern wheat, rice and corn.
And though quinoa has gotten all the press as a whole grain superfood, there’s good reason to try others. Trying a variety of whole grains isn’t just a way to mix up your same-old side dish routine. It’s also a chance to get a wider portfolio of minerals and more into your diet.
“Suffice to say, we need to have a more diverse plant-based diet” to get the full complement of recommended nutrients in our meals, Kapur said, “and we can’t get it from the same 10 or 20 foods.
“One grain might have more manganese, another more zinc or magnesium, and another more protein,” she added. “Try one as a pasta, one as a porridge — you do you, as long as there’s a variety.”
Familiar foods like oats, corn, brown and other colors of rice, as well as wild rice (which is an aquatic grass), are all considered whole grains, but there are many others you’ll want to add to your regular repertoire.
Some whole grains to get to know
amaranth is a tiny gluten-free grain that can be simmered until soft for a creamy polenta-like dish, but it also makes a deliciously crunchy addition to homemade energy bars or yogurt bowls when it’s been toasted. To toast amaranth seeds, cook over medium heat in a dry pan, shaking frequently until they begin to pop like minuscule popcorn kernels.
Buckwheat is gluten-free and botanically related to rhubarb, but these polygonal seeds (also called groats) don’t taste anything like fruit. You might already be familiar with buckwheat flour, used in pancakes and soba noodles, or Eastern European kasha, which is simply toasted buckwheat.
Faro is the overarching Italian name for three forms of ancient wheat: farro piccolo, or einkorn; farro medio, or emmer; and farro grande, or spelled. The farro you typically find at the store is the emmer variety, and it’s a rustic, pumped-up wheat berry that’s ideal as a grain bowl base. Or make an Italian-inspired creamy Parmesan farro risotto.
Freekeh is a wheat variety that’s harvested when unripe, then roasted for a surprisingly smoky, nutty flavor and chewy texture. Freekeh’s taste is distinctive enough that it steals the spotlight in your meals, so use it in ways that highlight its flavor. It’s fantastic in a vegetarian burrito bowl paired with spicy salsa, or in a warming chicken stew.
kamut is actually the trademarked brand name for an ancient type of wheat called Khorasan, which features large grains, a mild taste and tender texture. It’s a good, neutral substitute for brown rice in a pilaf or as a side dish. Or try this high-protein grain in a salad with bold flavors like arugula, blood orange and walnut.
millet is a gluten-free seed with a cooked texture similar to couscous. Teff is a small variety of millet that’s most frequently used as the flour base for Ethiopian injera flatbread. Try raw millet mixed into batters and doughs for a bit of crunch, like in this millet skillet cornbread recipe, or use either teff or millet cooked in a breakfast porridge.
How to cook any whole grain
While cooking times vary for each grain, there’s one way to cook any whole grain, whether it’s a tiny seed or a large, chewy kernel: Boil the grains like pasta.
Bring a large pot of water to a boil and add a handful of kosher salt. Add the grains and cook, tasting as you go, until tender. Small grains like amaranth and quinoa can cook fully in five to 15 minutes, while larger grains like farro and wild rice can take anywhere from 30 minutes to one hour — so keep an eye on your pot and check it frequently.
Drain well in a mesh strainer (to catch all those small grains) and either use immediately or allow to cool slightly, then refrigerate for later meals. Cooked whole grains can also be portioned, frozen and stored in airtight bags for up to six months.
If you want to cook your whole grains in an Instant Pot or other multicooker, this chart offers grain-to-water ratios for many of the grains mentioned here.
The CNN Wire
™ & © 2021 Cable News Network, Inc., a WarnerMedia Company. All rights reserved.
Casey Barber is a food writer, illustrator and photographer; the author of “Pierogi Love: New Takes on an Old-World Comfort Food” and “Classic Snacks Made from Scratch: 70 Homemade Versions of Your Favorite Brand-Name Treats”; and editor of the website Good. foods Stories.
Travel: A quaint county seat with Mayberry charm | Lifestyles – Travel
I finally ventured out for my first road trip of 2022 earlier this month. It’s been way too long since I took a little trip and it was long overdue. My last little getaway was in Chicago the week of Christmas. The day I returned I wasn’t feeling very well and an at-home test confirmed that I had COVID — again.
The first time was in November 2020 and it was a severe case that landed me in the hospital with pneumonia and difficulty breathing and then many months of recovery. Luckily this time around it just lasted a couple of weeks. At the same time I was pushing through COVID we were in the process of moving. And my Dad, who had tested positive for COVID not long before me, passed away. So, it’s been a heck of a start to 2022. A getaway was much needed.
It was a brief 24 hours in the Indianapolis area, but as always I packed a bit in and had a lot of good food. On our way down we stopped off in Rensselaer for lunch at Fenwick Farms Brewing Co. and took a little walk to check out the murals that are part of the Ren Art Walk. That evening I attended a media opening of the newly reopened Dinosphere exhibit at the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.
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It’s a place I adore and still enjoy visiting even though my kids are teenagers and young adults now. I love being greeted by the huge Bumblebee character on the way in from what is probably my favorite action move, “The Transformers.” The largest children’s museum in the world has so much to see and I’ve loved having the chance to explore it both with and without my kids.
After the event it was a quick overnight at Staybridge Suites in Plainfield, and in the morning we headed to Danville. Danville is the county seat of Hendricks County. I adore county seats with downtown squares and this is one of my favorites. On an earlier visit there we were in town for the Mayberry in the Midwest festival, which had lots of activities related to the classic TV show “The Andy Griffith Show” that was set in the fictional town of Mayberry.
Danville definitely has that charming, inviting, friendly small town vibe that feels like it could be a sitcom setting. We ate at the Mayberry Cafe where old episodes play on television screens and the menu is full of down-home, made-with-love comfort foods, with a specialty being “Aunt Bee’s Famous Fried Chicken.” I tried it and it was very tasty. The whole place made me smile like Opie after a fishing outing with his dad.
This time our dining destination was The Bread Basket. I had tried their desserts at a few events, but it was my first time dining in. It’s located in a house that was built for the president of Central Normal College in 1914 and is cute and cozy. It’s a breakfast and lunch spot, so plan to go early and be prepared for a wait during peak times (but it’s well worth it).
My Dilly Turkey Sandwich on fresh wheat nut bread with an Orchard Salad was delicious. I loved that they had a combo option where you could pick a half sandwich and half salad or cup of soup. But the desserts are the real star here. I stared at that dessert case for several minutes — and I wasn’t the only one.
I was seated next to it, and watched intently each time they removed a pie or cake from the case to cut a slice. I tried the Hummingbird Cake, which was a perfect treat without being too rich, and then noticed another that was so unique I had to get a slice to take home — the Blackberry Wine Chocolate Cake. If you go there and are overwhelmed with choices, go with this. You won’t regret it.
After lunch, we made our way over to the Hendricks County Historical Museum & Old County Jail, which is just off the square. For someone like me who loves history, this was a wonderful stop to incorporate into our day. It was built in 1866 and used as a jail all the way up until 1974. You can go into the old jail cells (two on the female side and four on the male side) and tour the sheriff’s home.
An exhibit has information and artifacts from when Central Normal College existed (later Canterbury College). There’s also a temporary chronological exhibit about music and musicians, featuring many Hoosier hitmakers.
After the visit, I took a breezy little walk around the square, where I was reminded that there is a nostalgic old movie theater. The historic Danville Royal Theater dates back to the early 1900s and shows current movies for just $5 a ticket.
It was then getting close to dinner time, so we decided to eat before we headed back home. A place in the nearby town of North Salem had been recommend to me and I am so glad we took time to visit. I chatted for a few minutes with Damiano Perillo, owner of Perillo’s Pizzeria. He’s a native of Palermo, the capital of Sicily. The food is authentic and almost all of it is made fresh daily, including their garlic rolls, marinara and alfredo sauces. The New York-style pizzas are perfection.
They even have a nearby garden where they grow many of the fresh vegetables and herbs used in their dishes. They have gluten free pastas, too, and the lady at the next table had some and was raving about it. We also tried the homemade Sicilian cannoli and the limoncello flute, and trust me when I say to definitely not skip dessert.
There was one last food stop. Although we had just eaten, I realized we’d be driving right by Rusted Silo Southern BBQ & Brewhouse in Lizton and just couldn’t pass it up. I made my husband pull in and pick up some food to go. We got the brisket and their house made pimento cheese, chorizo and kielbasa and took it home. I was introduced to it last fall and there is a reason they have been voted Best BBQ in the Indy area four years in a row. I loved hearing about how this eatery located next to a railroad literally stops trains in their tracks to get food from this award-winning BBQ joint.
All three of these places — The Bread Basket, Perillo’s Pizzeria and Rusted Silo are ones that you should absolutely include in your itinerary if you happen to be in the Indianapolis area.
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Guiding the way to thrive
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