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High cholesterol in children: Causes, treatment, and more

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People often view high cholesterol as a condition that only affects adults. However, high cholesterol can cause problems in children too, including heart disease and even stroke.

Cholesterol is a fatty substance that comes from a person’s liver. It is also found in certain foods. The body uses cholesterol to make cells, vitamins, and hormones.

However, high cholesterol can cause problems for people of all ages.

There are two main forms of cholesterol. The first low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which doctors call “bad” cholesterol, can build up on the walls of the arteries and cause blockages.

The other primary type, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, known as “good” cholesterol, helps carry LDL cholesterol away from the arteries.

It is important for all individuals to make sure they have healthy cholesterol levels. This article looks at what causes high cholesterol in children, what symptoms they experience, and what treatment options are available.

According to the American Heart Association (AHA), one in five teenagers has high cholesterol.

The following table provides information from the AHA on cholesterol levels in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years.

Health professionals measure blood cholesterol using milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL).

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) states that children 2 years and older with high cholesterol risk factors should have their cholesterol tested. These risk factors include:

  • a family history of early heart disease that is 55 years or younger in men and 65 or younger in women
  • have a parent who has high cholesterol
  • obesity
  • diabetes

Additionally, the NHLBI recommends that a child have their cholesterol tested between the ages of 9 and 11 years. They should then be screened for cholesterol every 5 years or earlier, depending on certain risk factors.

There are several reasons a child may have high cholesterol, such as: B. Diet or certain health conditions.

diet

Saturated and trans fats are types of fat in certain foods. These types of fats can cause the liver to produce more cholesterol than the body needs.

When a child’s diet contains high amounts of saturated fat and trans fats, it can lead to high cholesterol levels.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) say obesity in children can also lead to high cholesterol and blood pressure levels.

Foods that contain saturated or trans fats include:

  • high fat cheese
  • fatty meat
  • Full fat milk and cream
  • butter
  • Ice cream
  • Palm and coconut oils
  • processed goods such as cookies, potato chips, and fried foods

To maintain a nutritious diet, the AHA recommends that a child get a total fat intake of 30 to 35% of their daily calories by the age of 2 to 3 years. The organization also suggests that children ages 4 to 18 get 25 to 35% fat from their daily calories.

diabetes

A child who lives with diabetes may be at an increased risk of developing high cholesterol.

Diabetes can cause a condition called diabetic dyslipidemia, which lowers HDL levels and increases LDL levels.

A 2016 study found that 26.2% of 202 children with diabetes had dyslipidemia. However, more research is needed to determine the incidence of the disease in children with diabetes in the United States.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a condition in which deposits of fat called plaques build up in a person’s arteries. Badge consists of:

  • cholesterol
  • fatty substances
  • Cell waste
  • calcium
  • Fibrin, a blood clotting agent

The exact cause of atherosclerosis is unknown, although doctors believe it develops in childhood.

While children are unlikely to cause problems, atherosclerosis can cause health complications if it progresses into adulthood.

Familial hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder that can lead to high cholesterol levels. According to the FH Foundation, the disease affects 1 in 250 people worldwide.

FH causes high levels of LDL cholesterol due to a mutation in a gene that is responsible for removing cholesterol from the body. When the body cannot properly remove cholesterol, it can build up in the arteries and lead to atherosclerosis.

The condition is genetic – a person with FH has a 50% chance of passing it on to their children.

According to the National Library of Medicine, children typically don’t have symptoms of high cholesterol. A child should have their cholesterol checked routinely, especially if they have risk factors.

High cholesterol can put a child at risk of developing the following diseases:

  • Heart disease
  • stroke
  • Heart attack
  • chronic kidney disease

There is little information available about treating high cholesterol in children. However, the Society’s Guidelines for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions suggest the following lifestyle changes:

  • eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Use vegetable oils and soft margarine instead of butter or animal fat
  • Replacing refined cereal bread and cereals with whole grain substitutes
  • Reducing your intake of sugary foods and beverages
  • with low-fat or non-fat milk
  • eat more fish and lean cuts of meat
  • Removing skin from poultry
  • Reducing salt intake
  • Get to know a balanced diet and suitable portion sizes
  • Exercise for about 60 minutes a day

Additionally, to reduce the likelihood of children developing high cholesterol, the AHA recommends that parents or caregivers take the following steps:

  • Discourage cigarette smoking
  • Promote regular exercise
  • Know how to detect and treat high blood pressure
  • helping a child maintain a moderate weight
  • Promote a healthy diet
  • know the symptoms of diabetes

In addition, statins, a form of cholesterol-lowering medication, can be beneficial in treating high cholesterol in children. Research from 2019 found that statins could be a safe short-term treatment for children with FH. However, scientists have yet to determine the long-term effects of statins in children.

A parent or caregiver should ensure that they take their child with them for a routine cholesterol check. Generally, there are no symptoms of high cholesterol in children, so frequent testing is essential.

If a parent or guardian notices any of the following symptoms of heart problems in a child, they should see their doctor:

With babies

  • Do not eat
  • not gain weight
  • heavy sweating
  • rapid breathing

In infants

  • shortness of breath
  • fatigue
  • abnormal heart rhythm
  • faint
  • physically unable to keep up with other children

In older children

  • abnormal heartbeat
  • Passed out during exercise
  • excessive shortness of breath

High cholesterol can affect people of all ages. In children, this may be due to diet or various health conditions.

Since children do not usually experience symptoms of high cholesterol, their levels should be tested every 5 years or more, depending on risk factors and a doctor’s recommendations. Children with risk factors for high cholesterol can have their cholesterol tested from the age of 2 years.

Treatments for high cholesterol in children usually involve lifestyle changes. However, there are short-term cholesterol lowering drugs.

If a person notices signs of heart problems in their child, they should see a doctor.

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A cardiothoracic surgeon on the one thing she wishes people knew about their heart

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As one of only eleven female cardiothoracic surgeons in Australia, Dr. Nikki Stamp a heart surgeon with a mission – to bring inspiration and education to people everywhere.

Dr. Nikki works as a heart surgeon and has a particular interest in heart disease in women and transplants. She also has a strong desire to change the way we think about health and is committed to raising awareness about heart disease in women, which is currently the number one killer among Australian women.

In fact, one Australian woman dies of heart disease every hour and 50 women have a heart attack every day. On this World Heart Day we have Dr. Nikki asked how to keep a happy heart and safely monitor the health of one of our most precious organs.

Do you like what you see? For more stories like this, sign up for our bodyandsoul.com.au newsletter.

1. As a cardiovascular surgeon, what would you like to know about your heart?

I would be happy if people know that caring for their hearts starts at a young age! It doesn’t have to be complex or even popular.

2. What are some of your top tips to make sure your heart stays healthy?

There is a lot of complicated and unreachable advice to stay healthy when, in reality, it is the simple things that are good for your heart. Exercise your body, eat a healthy diet of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and healthy fats, quit smoking (if you do), sleep well, and talk to your doctor to learn more about your heart. It’s boring advice, but it works!

3. Wearable technology has made tremendous strides in monitoring our health in recent years. What can we learn from monitoring our heart rhythm and health on wearable technology like a Fitbit?

As a surgeon, I’m excited about the potential of wearable technology to help people better understand their health right on their wrist. Fitbit’s EKG app is a fantastic example of this, making it quick and easy to check your heart for common rhythm problems like atrial fibrillation.

This can then provide data that you can share with your doctor, identify important issues early on, and feel empowered about your own health and wellbeing.

4. I think that I am reasonably fit and healthy. Do I still have to monitor my heart rhythm with such a technical device?

In all honesty, it’s never too young to think about its heart. While we think of heart problems that arise when we are older, the truth is that heart disease does not discriminate.

Not only can we see heart problems in young people, but we also know that what we say in our 20s and 30s really lays the foundation for our future health.

5. What are some of the warning signs our heart may need medical attention?

You know your body best, so if you feel like something is wrong, get examined. Things to watch out for include chest pain or discomfort, palpitations that don’t go away, dizziness or fainting, shortness of breath, or realizing that you can’t do things that you normally would.

6. Assuming it’s World Heart Day, go ahead, give us your best heart fun fact?

Your heart starts beating before you are even born and doesn’t stop until you die, beating over 2.5 billion times in your lifetime! That’s so amazing!

All of the products featured in this article are selected by our editors who do not play favorites. When you buy something, we may receive some of the sale. Learn more.

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Tips to Be Fit: Early retirement may lead to earlier death | Health

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Retirement is a phase that most of us will go through. But should we just ride into the sunset and accept retirement as a phase we all have to live with? A study of Shell Oil employees found that people who retired at 55 and lived to be 65 died 37% earlier than those who retired at 65. They also found that people who retired at 55 were 89% more likely to retire within 10 years than those who retired at 65. Social security data also showed the trend. Men who retire at 62 were 20% more likely to die than the general population.

The type of occupation you had before retirement also played a role in how long you lived after you retired. One study found that groups who retired from lower-status jobs at the age of 65 were more likely to die within three years of retirement. People with higher quality jobs lived longer after retirement. A greater percentage of those with higher status who retire at 65 have higher education. Studies have also found that the lower the income and educational level, the higher the mortality rate among retirees.

Another issue that affected retirement was how important the job was to the retiree. Retirees who found their identity through their jobs have a harder time adapting to retirement. Some retirees have felt lost, unsure of who they are or what to spend their time with. These feelings can lead to inactivity, increased alcohol consumption, and depression. Working longer seems to reduce the likelihood of early death. Healthy workers who continued to work until they were 66 years old had an 11% reduced risk of death. Even retirees with health problems who worked until the age of 66 had a 9% reduced risk of death. These studies do not imply that you will die soon after you retire. If you retire at 65, you have a 76% chance of living another 10 years, a 38% chance of living an additional 20 years, and a 5% chance of living an additional 30 years. The life expectancy for men in the United States is 78.54 years. Women generally live longer than men and have a life expectancy of 81.1 years. Not all will die soon after retirement.

There are several things you can do to stay healthy in retirement.

Maintain a healthy weight and reduce body fat

Don’t smoke or hang out with people who smoke

Enjoy your family and friends

Plan meaningful tasks like travel, hobbies, and volunteering

See your doctor for regular checkups

Retirement does not mean becoming weak and suffering from age-related changes that are more likely to affect the elderly. Several studies show that strength training exercises help maintain and increase muscle strength and size as you age. When muscle biopsies from men over 50 who lifted weights were compared to those from 20-year-old men, the biopsies looked the same. When biopsies from men over 50 who did not exercise were compared to those from the same 20-year-old men, their biopsies showed typical age-related changes.

A complete workout should include exercises for each part of the body. These include the chest, shoulders, triceps, back, biceps, forearm, thighs, calves, and abdomen (midsection). Start with 2 or 3 different exercises for each part of the body. Gradually work up to 8-12 repetitions for each exercise. If you can do more than 12 repetitions with a weight, the weight is too light. If you can’t do 8 reps with a weight, the weight is too heavy. Do each exercise 1-3 times to start.

We strongly recommend that you have a professional show you what to include in your routine and that you get an OK from your doctor before starting. If you have chronic conditions such as heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmias, angina, or diabetes, these must be stable before starting an exercise program.

There is no mythical fountain of youth to stop the aging process after retirement. Aging begins with birth. Good nutrition plays an enormous role in aging gracefully. Many diseases or physical problems related to aging can be attributed in part to poor eating habits. Even after retirement, your body needs carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water to be healthy. Optimal health cannot be achieved without proper diet and exercise. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins provide energy (calories) that are necessary for work and normal body functions. Vitamins, minerals, fiber and water have no caloric value, but are still necessary for normal body functions. Most of the nutritional needs of the elderly person are similar to those of their younger counterparts. Make sure you are getting enough calcium, B vitamins, and iron through a balanced diet. Keep a food journal for two weeks to determine what to add to your diet. An active person needs around 10 to 13 calories for every pound of body weight. You should eat 4 to 5 small meals that contain fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat proteins.

My advice is to work for as long as you enjoy the work. When it comes time to retire, plan the eight hours you’ve worked with eight hours of something that matters to you.

If you have a fitness question or concern, write to Tips to be Fit, PO Box 53443, Philadelphia, PA 19105 or email tipstobefit@gmail.com. To find past articles, go to www.phillytrib.com and search for “Tips for Fit”.

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Is Rice Keto? Nope: Here’s Why

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Did you join the keto club? The ketogenic diet is a trendy high-fat, low-carbohydrate eating style that is touted for its potential health benefits (like promoting weight loss and treating certain medical conditions).

If you’re new to keto, it may take a while to familiarize yourself with what will and won’t fit in your new diet. Before you cook your favorite fried rice or dig into sushi, you may be asking yourself: is rice keto? Let’s find out.

With the keto diet, most of your caloric intake is obtained from proteins and healthy fats instead of carbohydrates. You will usually try to eat foods that contain a certain ratio of nutrients (like 70 percent fat, 20 percent protein, and 10 percent carbohydrates).

Carbohydrates and ketosis

If you drastically reduce the amount of carbohydrates you eat, your body can go into a state of ketosis. That’s when your body becomes mega efficient at burning fat for fuel. This can help you lose body fat and can be beneficial for some medical conditions.

Why doesn’t rice help you achieve this state? Rice is a grain, and grain just isn’t a low-carb food. Even brown rice – usually considered a “healthier” option than white rice – is off-limits on a keto diet.

Should you avoid rice altogether?

Rice is high in carbohydrates, but that doesn’t mean you have to cut it out of your life forever. While rice isn’t keto friendly, it’s still packed with essential nutrients and minerals. For example, it’s a good source of potassium and magnesium.

Keep in mind that while the keto diet has many potential health benefits, this low-carb lifestyle is not for everyone. It can actually have negative effects in certain populations (such as people with type 1 diabetes or people who are pregnant). If you are thinking of getting ketogenic, speak to a nutritionist first. They will help you find a plan that suits you.

Looking for a new staple supplement? We have them! Check out our list of delicious keto-friendly alternatives.

1. Shirataki rice

Net carbohydrates per serving: 1 gram

Shirataki rice (also known as “miracle rice”) is an interesting keto-friendly rice alternative. It is made from flour, which is made from the root of a plant called Konnyaku. What is so wonderful about it? Each serving of Shirataki rice contains only 1 carbohydrate. Also, because this rice is made up of soluble fiber, it can aid digestion.

2. Swede rice

Net carbohydrates per serving: 9 grams

And now for something completely different: turnip rice. Rutabaga is a root vegetable from the same family as cabbage and beets. It is often used as a low-carb substitute for potatoes. It has 9 grams of net carbs per 1 cup serving, but depending on your daily carb goal, it could fit into your keto diet. To make turnip rice, simply chop raw turnips in a food processor, then cook them on the stove.

3. Zoodles

Net carbohydrates per serving: 3 grams

Who needs pasta when you’ve got tons of zoodles? Zucchini noodles are zucchini that are cut into thin threads. They are suitable as a low-carbohydrate substitute for pasta and rice dishes. You can cut them at home with a spiral cutter or buy them ready-made. Zucchini is high in potassium and a 3/4 cup serving has only 3 grams of net carbohydrates.

4. Spaghetti squash

Net carbohydrates per serving: 7.8 grams

In the mood for something warm and hearty that will give you all the cozy vibes? Try spaghetti squash. With just 7.8 grams of carbohydrates per 1 cup serving, spaghetti squash is another great low-carb substitute for rice. To make the spaghetti-like strands appear, cut the pumpkin in half and toast it. When it’s done, use a fork to scrape out the fleshy parts.

5. Grated cabbage

Net carbohydrates per serving: 3 grams

Grated cabbage is far from rice, but it can serve as an easy-to-prepare, low-carb side dish. You can chop up your cabbage with a food processor or just cut it by hand. Not only is cabbage low in carbohydrates, but a study suggested it could play an important role in heart health.

6. Broccoli rice

Net carbohydrates per serving: 6 grams

It has color, it has taste, and it looks like a little tree … it’s broccoli! Broccoli is a cauliflower cousin and another great low-carb substitute for your regular rice dish. To make broccoli rice, simply put the broccoli in a food processor and pulse it until it’s as small as grains of rice. One cup of cooked broccoli has about 6 grams of net carbohydrates and 30 milligrams of calcium, making this vegetable a great non-dairy source of calcium.

7. Cauliflower rice

Net carbohydrates per serving: 6 grams

A popular low-carb rice alternative under #TeamKeto, cauliflower rice is only 6 grams of net carbs per 1 cup serving. In addition, a small study suggested that eating vegetables like cauliflower can have a positive impact on digestion and gut health.

  • The keto diet is a low-carb, high-fat diet that limits the amount of carbohydrates you eat.
  • Both white and brown rice are high in carbohydrates, so rice is generally * not * keto.
  • Keto-friendly alternatives to rice include vegetable options with broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and zucchini.
  • There is some evidence that a keto diet can play a role in weight loss and even in the management of diabetes.
  • A restrictive low-carb diet cannot be sustainable in the long run. If you have any questions about keto and how it can affect your health, speak to a registered dietitian.

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