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How do we reshape our food environment so that it no longer works against us?

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In many ways, it’s hardly a big mystery, writes Bobo “Why Smart People Make Bad Choices: The Invisible Influences That Guide Our Thinking.” We live an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and food is available everywhere around the clock, which means we must maintain superhuman levels of discipline in order to stay slim.

And while we often tell ourselves that dietary recommendations are constantly changing (“even the experts can’t agree”), we all know that we quit smoking, exercise more, drink less, eat more fruits and vegetables, and eat less soda should. Cookies and pizza, he says.

The challenge is to follow this advice when everything in our environment – the “food landscape” – is working against us.

Basically, defining weight management as just a matter of willpower and self-discipline is just unfair and proven ineffective, says Bobo, an attorney with an educational background in biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, and psychology who spent 13 years in the State Department as a global advisor to Food policy before moving to biotech company Intrexon and starting a food foresight company future.

When three-quarters of the adult population are unable to maintain a healthy weight in a culture where obesity – despite its ubiquity – still carries real social stigma and health risks, one has to wonder if the odds are stand against us.

Education is not the problem: “In 1960 nobody knew anything about health and nutrition and yet nobody was obese.”.

“It’s pretty clear that what matters is the environment and behavior, not education,” says Bobo, who spoke with FoodNavigator-USA about our upcoming special issue on weight management.

“In 1960 nobody knew anything about health and nutrition and yet nobody was obese.”

Earlier generations ran out of willpower, he says, they just weren’t exposed to the same temptations, and burned more calories as they went about their daily activities (gyms and keto diets weren’t a thing in 1921, but most people stayed slim) without going into their diaries Having to plan “movement”.

“Let’s take the willpower out of the equation and redesign our environment …” .

So if educating people doesn’t really move the needle and big policy changes are challenging in a political environment where even minor political interference is portrayed as an unacceptable assault on our freedoms, how can grocery stores, corporate cafeterias, town planners, schools, restaurants and consumers are using behavioral research to transform the nutritional environment?

There’s no silver bullet, Bobo says, but every little “push” and intervention that changes the nutritional environment just makes it that little bit easier to make healthier choices without putting willpower into the equation.

There are innumerable ideas and examples in his book, many of which are based on the fact that “the rational mind is lazy and often allows our intuitives to take the lead, which often means treading the path of least resistance”. So if we make the standard option healthier but still offer less healthy options, we will be invisibly guided to a better result without feeling manipulated or deprived of choice.

Don’t ban fries and soda, just make healthier options the default: E.g. Make water, milk, or 100% juice the standard drink for kids’ meals (soda is still on sale, just ask for it). Make salad or fruit the default (fries are still on sale but you’ll have to ask for them).

(At Disney theme parks that have tested this, the vast majority of parents stick to the healthy default setting for drinks, and about half stick with the healthier alternative to fries.) claims the CSPI.)

12 ounce cups … and free refills: Don’t prohibit big sips, only sell 12-ounce soda cups and offer free refills. (If you really want more soda, you can have it, says Bobo, but the gradual increase in the size of dinner plates, wine glasses, soda cups, and serving sizes has steadily led us to eat more). “When the standard size is small, diners drink less.”

Sell ​​the foot-length submarine, but wrap each half individually: If you are really hungry, you will still eat the whole thing, says Bobo. If not, “consumers would give serious thought to whether to open the other half or just take it home with them.”

Bring out the take-home box to eat:That way, restaurants can still sell large portions of what consumers expected, but boxing half of them as soon as it arrives can help curb overeating at the table.

Rethink menu labeling: Position healthy choices as culinary delights that appeal to all diners rather than reduced fat / sugar options for dieters: “You may not be tempted by ‘Low Fat Vegetarian Black Bean Soup’, but a bowl of ‘Cuban Black Bean Soup’ sounds pretty exciting.”

Do not create a Healthy Choices section on the menu: Position healthier options as main menu items, not as items that are relegated to a “healthy” section at the end of the menu or as something for those on special or restricted diets. “Redesign menus so that healthier choices are more likely to be made.” .

Place the snacks further away from the coffee machine:: Experiments by Michiel Bakker at Google’s corporate cafeterias show that even simple strategies like removing the snacks from the coffee maker make you less likely to grab them while waiting for your coffee, Bobo says.

Put appetizing vegetables at the beginning of the buffet: By simply positioning appetizing vegetable dishes at the beginning of a buffet line in an experiment in a Google cafeteria, employees ate more vegetables and less meat, says Bobo. While a handful of Googlers purposely kept their plates empty to make room for the meat (at the end of the buffet line), most filled their plates with the vegetable dishes before they even got to the lamb.

“Kickoff is not about excluding options or stigmatizing meat-eaters, it is about encouraging better behavior while leaving room for choice and our inner cute demons.”

Make healthier drinks more visible: “A study in a hospital cafeteria found that putting water at eye level in fridges and baskets near food stations increased water use by 26%.”

Don’t sell junk food at the checkout: It is clear that there is a buy-in through trade associations for such things in order to create a level playing field, says Bobo: “But these are things that will eventually become the industry norm. I would say either you can do it today and you will get recognition and good publicity, or you can do it tomorrow and you will be vilified for dragging your feet. “

Jack Bobo: “Obesity reduction in America is not about diet or information. It’s not about reading labels or counting calories. Instead, it is about changing our eating culture, which is the sum of all our habits in combination with our environment. The food culture in America has changed drastically since the 1970s when I was growing up. And it’s not a thing, it’s everything “Photo credit: Jack Bobo

“Do you really want to improve consumer health, or do you just want to convey to consumers that you are improving their health?”.

When it comes to the packaged food industry, Bobo says CPG companies have made significant efforts to cut calories, sodium, saturated fat, and sugar, and add a positive diet (fiber, vitamin D, chia seeds), but they also sell a lot of organic , plant-based, GMO-free and natural junk food.

As Dr. Robert Lustig also in a current interviewWith us, cola is 100% vegetable and non-genetically modified biscuits with biodynamic cane sugar and organic chocolate chips are still biscuits.

“I’ve had conversations with some of these big companies and they asked me questions about how to communicate healthy choices in food?” Says Bobo. “My first question to you is: Do you really want to improve your health? from consumers, or do you just want to convey to consumers that you are improving their health? “

Is Vegetable Healthier? Depends on how you define herbal.

The term “plant-based” – which many consumers now consider a substitute for “healthy” or “better for you” – is already used to refer to products that may be made from plants (think chips and soda), but probably not. “What most dietitians have in mind when encouraging us all to eat more plants,” he says.

While most RDs would characterize a plant-based or plant-based diet as a diet filled with fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, virtually all investment funds for plant-based innovations are invested in meat and dairy analogues using a very narrow range of ingredients (oils, starches, Rubber, protein powder from a handful of raw material cultures).

There’s nothing wrong with plant-based ice cream or bacon, and here too, environmental and animal welfare issues clearly play a role, says Bobo. But what if the same amount of money and brainpower were devoted to finding appetizing, affordable, and convenient ways to do it? to eat a greater variety of plants in all the colors of the rainbow?

“I think a lot about how we can de-stigmatize frozen food,” says Bobo. “How do we make it cool and exciting so that people don’t feel like they’re giving their kids something that isn’t optimal?

“If we were to eat our five servings of fruits and vegetables a day, we would crowd out the other things because they are simply more filling.” .

Find out more about Bobo’s new book HERE. .

Keto Diet-GettyImages-ThitareeSarmkasatGettyImages-ThitareeSarmkasat

“The truth is that diets don’t work for most people. Sure, many diets work for some people for a short period of time, but there is little evidence that any particular diet will work or for most people over a period of months Years.

“Diets are based on the premise that if we just stick to the plan, we can lose ten, twenty, or thirty pounds in months, but that’s not how we gained weight. We’ve put on a pound, two, or three a year for thirty years. To return to a place where knowing what and how much to eat is an afterthought rather than an act of soldierly will, we need to change our eating habits and to do that we need to change our eating environment. .

“If we do that, we’ll find that we’ll lose a pound, two, or three a year for the next thirty years, and we’ll return to healthier, happier ways of being.” .Jack Bobo.

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Whole Grains Health

How to Tell if Your Baby is Ready to Stop Drinking Formula – Cleveland Clinic

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Make the formula. Feed your sweetie. Wash, rinse, repeat. For parents of babies who drink infant formula, you did this dance several times a day (and night) for what felt like an eternity. But could the end finally be in sight? When do babies stop drinking milk?

The Cleveland Clinic is a not-for-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our website helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. politics

“A healthy baby should drink breast milk or formula up to the age of 1 year. Formulas are fortified with the vitamins and iron they need, ”says pediatrician Radhai Prabhakaran, MD. “In general, babies aged 9 months to 1 year should have at least 24 ounces per day. But once your baby is on a full diet of nutritious solid foods, switch to cow’s milk, which contains protein and vitamin D. “

Indicates your baby is ready to wean the formula

Whether babies are ready to board the milk express depends on their taste for table food. “Some babies get used to a mostly solid diet early (between 9 and 12 months) because they like it and they are okay with it. If you have a nutritionally balanced diet, it is okay to wean your baby from infant formula before the age of one. “

A healthy solid food diet for a baby should include:

  • Fruit.
  • Grains.
  • Protein from meat, eggs, or boiled beans.
  • Vegetables.

“Gradually reduce the amount of formula you drink as you eat more. Keep offering it to drink because sometimes babies are not full after eating solid foods, ”notes Dr. Prabhakaran. “But wait until they are 1 year old to introduce cow’s milk, even if they wean earlier.”

Signs your baby is NOT ready to wean the formula

Your baby should continue feeding if:

  • You’re not gaining weight.
  • Were born prematurely.
  • Have not established a balanced solid diet.
  • You need to proceed with the formula based on your doctor’s recommendation. (For example, if your baby has food allergies or has trouble digesting food or absorbing nutrients.)

Health conditions that affect how long babies drink formula

Certain underlying health conditions can affect how long it takes your baby to drink formula. Babies may need to stay on the formula longer if they:

“And if your doctor has already told you that your baby may need to be on a special diet, talk to him or her before weaning your baby off the formula,” adds Dr. Prabhakaran added. “They can help you come up with a nutrition plan that will make the transition safer.”

How to wean your baby off formula

If your baby likes the taste of cow’s milk:

  1. Start giving them a 2 to 4 ounce serving of milk for every two or three servings of formula.
  2. For up to 10 days over the next week, increase the servings of milk as you decrease the servings of the formula.
  3. Stop giving milk as soon as you have drunk the milk without any problems.

If your baby prefers the taste of formula:

  1. Build the formula as usual. Do not add cow’s milk to the milk powder.
  2. Mix together 2 ounces of prepared formula and 2 ounces of cow’s milk so you have a 4-ounce drink for your baby.
  3. Feed your baby the mixture.
  4. Over the next week to 10 days, add more milk and less milk to the mixture until it is all cow’s milk.

Bottle or cup?

Get ready to say goodbye to the bottle. Dr. Prabhakaran says that drinking from a bottle is a no-go from the age of 1. “Bottle feeding can affect tooth growth and cause tooth decay.”

Instead, switch your little one to a swallow, straw, or regular cup at around 9 months of age. “When you’re feeling adventurous, wean her off the formula and the bottle at the same time.”

Does my baby still need milk when he wakes up at night?

Dr. Prabhakaran notes that most babies of this age do not need to eat when they wake up at night. “When babies have doubled their birth weight (which happens after about 4 to 6 months) and are eating solid foods regularly, they generally don’t need extra calories and can sleep through the night. So encourage her to go back to sleep. “

Babies of this age also have the most milk teeth, so drinking milk or formula at night can lead to dental problems. Night feeding can also make them too full to eat what they need during the day.

But as always there are exceptions. “If your baby is not gaining weight, your doctor can give you other advice. Breast-fed babies can also take a little longer because the breast milk is digested more quickly. “

When to apply the brakes when stopping the formula

Dr. Prabhakaran says the transition to cow’s milk should be even slower once babies start drinking milk and experience:

  • Dramatic change in her bowel movements.
  • Abundance.

If these symptoms persist or worsen, speak to your baby’s pediatrician about a possible milk allergy. If necessary, your doctor can recommend safe milk alternatives for young children.

Signs that your baby may not tolerate cow’s milk include:

  • Constipation.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Rash.
  • Vomit.

What is the best milk for a 1 year old?

Experts consider whole cow milk to be the best milk for 1-year-olds after weaning. “The general rule is whole milk until they’re 2 years old, unless there are special circumstances,” says Dr. Prabhakaran.

Your doctor may recommend 2% milk instead if your baby:

  • Is difficult for her size.
  • Drink more than the recommended amount of milk (16 to 24 ounces per day or 2 to 3 cups).
  • Is blocked.

Milk alternatives for toddlers

Unsweetened soy milk is one of the best cow milk alternatives for toddlers because it has a similar protein content. But soy milk has fewer calories – which babies need to thrive – than whole milk. The calorie content of unsweetened rice milk is slightly higher, but it contains less protein and more added sugar.

The best way to make a decision, says Dr. Prabhakaran, is to look at your child’s overall diet. “There are so many milk alternatives and the diets of babies are very different. It’s impossible to have a blanket rule of what’s okay. Some children eat a lot of yogurt and cheese. Some babies are vegan. Talk to your baby’s doctor about the best alternative to help your child with certain deficiencies and general nutrition. “

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Meeting sleep recommendations can lead to smarter snacks

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Photo credit: CC0 public domain

New studies show that missing more than 7 hours of sleep each night, which is recommended, may lower the chances of choosing a treat than those who meet the guidelines with their eyes closed.

Analysis of data from nearly 20,000 American adults showed a link between failure to follow sleepy diet recommendations and snack-related carbohydrates, added sugar, fats, and caffeine.

The preferred food category without meals has been set – salty snacks, sweets and soft drinks are the same for adults. Sleep Habits However, people who sleep less tend to eat more total snack calories in a single day.

The study also revealed what appears to be a popular American habit, a dinner that is no matter how much we sleep.

Christopher Taylor, professor of medical nutrition and lead study author at Ohio State University School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, said:

“Not only do we sleep when we stay up late, but we also have all of these obesity-related behaviors: lack of physical activity, prolonged screening times, a variety of foods that we consume as snacks, not meals. Whether or not you meet your sleep recommendations will have a huge impact. “

Recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Study Group Adults should regularly sleep at least 7 hours a night to promote optimal health. Sleep Less There is an increased risk of many health problems, including weight gain, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease, than recommended.

“We know sleep deprivation is broadly linked to obesity, but it’s all these little behaviors that determine how it happens,” says Taylor. I did.

The abstract of the study is in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Nutrition The study will be presented in a poster session on October 18, 2021 Food Nutrition Conference & Expo.

The researchers analyzed data from 19,650 American adults, ages 20 to 60, who participated between 2007 and 2018. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

This study collects 24-hour meals from each participant, details what and when all foods are consumed, and asks about the average hours of sleep on weekdays.

The Ohio State University team ranked participants on whether they met sleep recommendations based on whether they reported more than 7 hours or less than 7 hours of sleep per night. Using the USDA database, researchers estimated participants’ snack-related nutrient intake and classified all snacks into food groups. Three snack time frames were established for the analysis. It’s from 2:00 a.m. to 11:59 a.m., 5:59 p.m., and 6:00 p.m. to 1:59 p.m. in the evening.

According to statistical analysis, almost everyone (95.5%) eats at least one snack a day, and more than 50% of the snack calories of all participants are soda and energy drinks and chips, pretzels, cookies, and pastries. It was of two broad categories including.

Participants who did not meet sleep recommendations were more likely to eat morning treats, less likely to have afternoon treats, and have more calories than participants who slept more than 7 hours at night. I have eaten a lot of low-nutrient snacks.

Although many physiological factors are involved in the relationship between sleep and health, Taylor says that behavior modification, particularly avoiding the nose at night, not only helps adults adhere to sleep guidelines, but also improves their diet. Said it could help you.

“Following sleep recommendations helps to meet certain sleep needs that are relevant to our health, but it is also related to the fact that we are not doing anything that could harm our health. “Says registered nutritionist Taylor. “The longer you stay up, the more chances you have to eat. At night, these calories come from treats and sweets. Every time you make these decisions, you increase your risk of developing chronic diseases. Here are some calories and foods that are relevant and we don’t have whole grains, fruits, or vegetables.

“If you’re in bed trying to sleep, at least you won’t eat in the kitchen. So if you can go to bed yourself, that’s the starting point. ”

How to sleep well in 2021

For more informations:
E. Potosky et al., Differences in Snack Intake by Meet Sleep Recommendations, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Nutrition (2021). DOI: 10.1016 / j.jand.2021.06.145

Provided by
Ohio State University

Quote: Smarter snacks from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-09-smarter-snacking.html on September 20, 2021 (September 20, 2021).

This document is subject to copyright. No part may be reproduced without written permission except in fair transaction for personal investigation or research. The content is provided for informational purposes only.

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How to optimise healthy eating habits

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“Good nutrition is essential for optimal health throughout our lives,” replies Maria van der Merwe, President of ADSA, The Association of Dietetics in South Africa.

“Meeting our changing nutritional needs from infancy to old age increases resilience, helps us control our weight, and prevents nutritional deficiencies and the development of a variety of chronic health conditions. Should we fall ill, a balanced diet can (also) contribute to our recovery. “

But isn’t good food expensive?

As many South Africans are feeling the economic impact of the pandemic, registered nutritionist Dr. Nazeeia sayed that healthy meals are still achievable on a tight budget. “If you focus on seasonal vegetables and fruits, whole grains like oats, and more plant-based protein sources like beans and lentils instead of meat, you will save money,” she advises.

What about nutritional supplements?

With vitamins and minerals flying off the shelves, Nazeeia says it is important to note that “There is no scientific evidence that any particular food, supplement, or diet can prevent COVID or other infections. It is best to stick to healthy eating guidelines and make sure your family enjoys a variety of foods every day.

How does home cooking help?

“When we cook from scratch at home, we can use unprocessed or minimally processed foods (foods in their natural state) as the basis of our meals … (These) foods are often nutritious and good sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber,” comments Maria . “If we cook our meals ourselves, we can also determine how much fat, salt and sugar – if available – are added when preparing the meals.”

Nazeeia agrees, adding that home cooking is a way to especially involve children in conversations about where the food comes from. It also inspires us to try new recipes and cuisines, and lays the foundation for healthy habits that can last a lifetime.

So what are some tips for getting more preventative nutritional benefits on a tighter budget?

  • Focus on eating a variety of affordable foods so that you get a wider range of beneficial nutrients.
  • Prioritize unprocessed foods, including seasonal vegetables and fruits, whole grains, dried beans and lentils.
  • Eat fewer take-away meals, which are often high in salt and fat, and budget that budget on whole foods that you can prepare at home.
  • Replace sugary drinks like sodas, fruit juices, and energy drinks with plenty of clean, safe water – you’ll be amazed at how much you save!
  • Cut down on your meat consumption and instead focus on more plant-based diets. Inexpensive dried beans and lentils are a tasty substitute for meat dishes or can be added as an additional ingredient to lengthen your meat dishes.
  • When meat options get too expensive, switch to other cheaper animal protein sources like eggs, maas, and yogurt.
  • Plan your meals and grocery purchases in advance. Look out for specials and work with family, friends, and neighbors to shop in bulk together.
  • Grow your own products. Spinach, kale, and traditional vegetables like marog are just as easy to grow as onions, beans, beetroot, carrots, and tomatoes.

Information provided by ADSA. To find a registered dietitian near you, visit www.adsa.org.za

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