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Whole Grains Health

What Are Postbiotics? Types, Benefits, and Downsides



Prebiotics and probiotics have received a lot of attention for improving gut health. Recently, postbiotics have emerged as another group of beneficial compounds that can help improve your health.

They have been linked to a number of health benefits for the gut, immune system, and various other aspects of health.

Since the definitions can be confusing, here’s a quick rundown of each type:

  • Probiotics are healthy or “friendly” bacteria that live in your gut and support your health by converting fiber into compounds that are beneficial to your health (1).
  • Prebiotics are a group of nutrients, mainly fiber, that feed the beneficial bacteria in your gut (2).
  • Postbiotics are the bioactive compounds that the probiotic bacteria produce when they consume prebiotics (fiber).

This article gives you a comprehensive overview of postbiotics.

Postbiotics are bioactive compounds made when the healthy bacteria in your gut called probiotic bacteria feed on different types of prebiotic foods in your colon, such as: B. Fibers (3).

Although these bioactive compounds are considered to be waste products of probiotic bacteria, they offer your body various health benefits.

This is because many of the health benefits associated with prebiotics and probiotics actually come from making postbiotics.

There are several types of postbiotics (3):

  • short chain fatty acids
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Exopolysaccharides
  • Enzymes
  • Cell wall fragments
  • Bacterial lysates (a mixture of bacterial components)
  • cell-free supernatants (a mixture of compounds produced by bacteria and yeast)
  • various other metabolites such as vitamins and amino acids

Postbiotic supplements are not as widespread yet as they are relatively new compared to prebiotics and probiotics.

However, you can buy them at certain health food stores and online. Alternatively, since postbiotics are their end products, you can increase the number of postbiotics in your body by eating more prebiotic foods and probiotics.


Postbiotics are bioactive compounds that are made when the healthy bacteria in your intestinal fiber ferment. There are several types of postbiotics, and they offer health benefits similar to probiotics.

While the concept of postbiotics is fairly new, they have been around for a long time and are associated with several health benefits.

Can help boost your immune system

Postbiotics have properties that can help strengthen your immune system.

For example, postbiotics like butyrate, a short chain fatty acid, can stimulate the production of regulatory T cells in your gut. These cells help control the level of your body’s immune response (3).

Other postbiotics, such as cell wall fragments and supernatants from healthy bacteria, can increase the production of anti-inflammatory chemical messengers called cytokines, which help reduce inflammation and promote immune responses (3).

Studies in adults have shown that postbiotics can boost the immune system and protect against infections like colds.

A 12-week study in 80 healthy older adults found that daily postbiotic supplementation lowered the risk of respiratory infection and improved the ability to produce antibodies that protect the body from harmful bacteria and toxins (4).

In another 20-week study, 300 older adults were given either a placebo, a low-dose postbiotic, or a high-dose postbiotic supplement daily to protect themselves from colds.

At the end of the study, significantly fewer people in the low- and high-dose postbiotic group developed a cold than in the placebo group (5).

Can Help Reduce Digestive Symptoms

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects more than 1 million people in the United States.

Research suggests that postbiotics like short chain fatty acids may help improve symptoms in people with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease – two types of IBD.

People with IBD tend to produce fewer short chain fatty acids like butyrate in their gut, which plays a role in regulating immunity and inflammation in the digestive tract. For example, butyrate plays a role in activating immune cells that help reduce inflammation (6).

A small study of 13 people with mild to moderate Crohn’s disease found that taking 4 g of butyrate daily for 8 weeks led to clinical improvements and remissions in 53% of participants (7).

Several older studies, mainly from the 1990s, on postbiotics and IBD suggest that short-chain fatty acids like butyrate can improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis (8, 9, 10, 11).

Can help prevent and treat diarrhea

Research suggests that postbiotics can help prevent and treat diarrhea.

For example, a review of seven studies in 1,740 children found that supplementing with postbiotics significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and was more effective than placebo treatments in preventing diarrhea, pharyngitis, and laryngitis (12).

Similarly, a review of 23 studies in 3,938 children found that supplementing with postbiotics was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (13).

In a small study from 2003, 137 adults with chronic diarrhea were treated with either a postbiotic or a probiotic drug for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the postbiotic supplement was shown to be more effective than the probiotic in treating diarrhea (14).

A 4-week study of 297 adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also found that supplementation with a postbiotic significantly reduced the frequency of bowel movements, gas, and pain, and improved their overall quality of life (15).

Other potential benefits

Postbiotics have been linked to several other emerging health benefits, but more research is needed to determine the magnitude of these effects:

  • Can help with allergies. A study of 34 adults with atopic dermatitis (eczema) found that supplementing with a postbiotic for 8-12 weeks significantly reduced the severity of the condition. In comparison, the placebo group showed no improvements (16).
  • Can help you lose weight. Some studies suggest that postbiotics like short chain fatty acids can aid weight loss by suppressing hunger signals (17, 18, 19).
  • May help lower your risk of heart disease. In animal studies, butyrate appears to lower blood pressure and suppress genes that play a role in cholesterol production (20, 21).
  • Can help control blood sugar levels. Studies suggest that butyrate may be helpful in controlling blood sugar levels (22, 23).
  • May have anti-tumor properties. Some test-tube and animal studies suggest that postbiotics may have properties that suppress the growth and spread of some cancer cells, including colon and stomach cancer cells (24, 25, 26).
  • Can be tolerated better than probiotics. When you consume probiotics, you increase the number of beneficial bacteria in your body. However, some people may not tolerate probiotics well, so postbiotics may be a more suitable alternative (27).


Postbiotics have been linked to various health benefits, such as: Such as helping immunity, preventing or treating diarrhea, reducing symptoms of irritable bowel disease, reducing the severity of certain allergies, helping weight loss, and more.

In general, postbiotics are considered safe and well tolerated in healthy people.

When you take a probiotic supplement to increase the production of postbiotics, you may experience digestive side effects such as gas, gas, bloating, and mild stomach discomfort. These symptoms usually go away once your body has adjusted (28).

However, certain groups of people should avoid increasing their postbiotic levels by consuming foods rich in probiotic.

These groups tend to have weaker or weakened immune systems and therefore may be at an increased risk for a side effect (29):

  • People who have recently had an operation
  • People with structural heart disease
  • People with indigestion
  • pregnant people
  • children

As with any dietary supplement, it is important to speak to a doctor before taking any post-biotic dietary supplement, especially if you have any health problems or are taking medication.


In general, postbiotics are safe and well tolerated. Due to potential health concerns, certain groups of people may want to avoid increasing their postbiotics production by consuming probiotic foods.

Postbiotics aren’t as common as prebiotics and probiotics.

However, you can buy them at select health food stores and online. In some cases, instead of being called “postbiotics”, they may have another name, such as sodium butyrate, calcium butyrate, or dry yeast fermentate.

Since postbiotics are made through fermentation by healthy bacteria in your gut, you can naturally increase your postbiotics production by eating prebiotic and probiotic foods.

As you eat more prebiotic and probiotic foods to get more postbiotics, you get the added health benefits associated with prebiotics and probiotics.

Sources of Prebiotics

Prebiotics are generally found in high-fiber foods like whole grains and vegetables. The following foods are some good sources:

  • Chicory root
  • garlic
  • Onions
  • leek
  • asparagus
  • barley
  • oats
  • linseed
  • seaweed

Sources of probiotics

Probiotics are generally found in fermented foods and beverages, such as:

  • Live culture yogurt
  • kefir
  • sauerkraut
  • Kimchi
  • Miso
  • Tempeh
  • Kombucha


Postbiotic supplements aren’t widely available, but can be found at some health food stores and online. They may be listed under an alternate name. You can naturally increase your post-biotic production by eating more prebiotic and probiotic foods.

Postbiotics are bioactive compounds made when the friendly bacteria in your gut (probiotic bacteria) digest and break down fibers (prebiotics).

Although postbiotics are technically considered a waste product, they offer various health benefits, similar to probiotics.

Postbiotics can support your immune system, prevent or treat diarrhea, relieve symptoms associated with irritable bowel disease, and even reduce the severity of certain allergies.

Postbiotics are generally safe and well tolerated, and can be purchased from some health food stores and online. Alternatively, you can naturally increase your body’s postbiotic production by consuming more prebiotics and probiotics.

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Whole Grains Health

Protein Variety and Heart Health Are Linked, Study Finds



We’ve all found ourselves in the habit of eating the same three things over and over (…and over) again. When life gets busy, falling back on simple dishes that satisfy your tastebuds is the natural thing to do. But if you’re cooking up the same couple proteins on the regular, a new study published in the the journal Hypertension suggests that it may be time to introduce a few new varieties into your breakfasts, lunches, and dinners.

The study pulled existing data from over 12,000 participants who took part in a minimum of two rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Researchers sought to explore the relationship between hypertension—or high blood pressure—and the variety and quantity of proteins from eight major dietary sources consumed by participants. (Study participants were an average age of 41 years old.)

Researchers measured protein intake by looking at three consecutive days of eating, scoring each round based on the number of protein varieties consumed (including legumes, fish, eggs, whole grains, refined grains, processed and unprocessed red meat, and poultry).

The results? “Among ‘just the right amount’ consumers of protein, those eating the greatest variety of protein had a the lowest blood pressure,” explains John Higgins, MD, a sports cardiologist with McGovern Medical School at the UT Health Science Center at Houston. Notably, those who ate the least and the most amount of protein were at the greatest risk for developing high blood pressure, while those who ate the greatest variety of protein were 66 percent less likely to end up developing hypertension between the rounds of the survey .

“The heart health message is that consuming a balanced diet with proteins from various different sources, rather than focusing on a single source of dietary protein, may help to prevent the development of high blood pressure.” — Xianhui Qin, MD, study author

Although the survey results sound complicated—and, hey, they were—the takeaway is simple: “The heart health message is that consuming a balanced diet with proteins from various different sources, rather than focusing on a single source of dietary protein, may help to prevent the development of high blood pressure,” Xianhui Qin, MD, the study author, said in a press release. In other words: Mix it up! Spin the protein wheel of fortune and try something new.

Related Stories

If you’re not quite sure where to start with upping your protein game, Dr. Higgins recommends looking at your consumption on a daily basis. “The American Heart Association recommends eating no more than about 5.5 ounces of protein daily, about one to two servings, from healthy sources such as plants, seafood, low-fat or fat-free dairy products and some lean meats and poultry,” he says. “The best proteins are lean proteins including beans, soy or tofu, fish, skinless chicken, very lean meat, and low-fat dairy products. Avoid proteins that say ‘hydrogenated’ on label or contain high levels of trans fats or saturated fats. “

Of course, there’s always room in your eating plan for less nutritional proteins, too—just try to incorporate these lean sources when you can, and ask your doctor if you have questions about what dietary habits are right for your particular health status and family history .

A delicious way to eat more varied proteins? This delicious quiche recipe:

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Whole Grains Health

The 10 Best Diet Books in 2022



Staff, Courtesy of Shalane Flanagan & Elyse Kopecky

The word “diet” has earned itself an undeniably negative reputation, often leading people to think of unsustainable restriction and unhealthy fads. However, if you’re looking to adjust your way of eating, whether you want to feel better, lose weight, or hit a new personal record, there are tons of great diet books out there that can help educate you on ways to improve your nutrition and get you feeling better than ever.

While the diets of the past have focused on restriction, newer ways of eating encouragement consuming more good-for-you foods to crowd out less healthy choices, leaving you feeling satisfied, not deprived. These diet books are also super educational, teaching you why you should eat certain foods, what they can do for your health, and the best ways to make them delicious. To help you on your nutrition journey, we’ve gathered the best diet books and healthy cookbooks available today.

Best Diet Books

    How to Choose a Diet Book

    If you’re looking to switch up your diet, the first thing you should ask yourself is why. What exactly do you want out of a diet?

    Second, consider your lifestyle. Do you need meals that are quick and easy? Do you like to take an hour or two to cook for yourself every night? How often can you grocery shop for fresh ingredients?

    Finally, consider whether you’re looking specifically for a cookbook or one that will provide you education on a particular way of eating without necessarily giving you recipes. While many cookbooks will have some content that discusses the origins of food and their nutritional benefits, these books are unlikely to go as in-depth regarding nutrition as less recipe-focused ones.

    How We Selected

    To find the best diet books among the many options on the market, we researched the most popular books available and considered their content, credibility, design, digestibility, and organization. We then looked at both expert reviews and more than 105,000 customer ratings, written by people who’ve bought these books on Amazon, to settle on the diet books you’ll find below.

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    Best vegetarian

    How to Cook Everything Vegetarian

    Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

    This is a great all-around cookbook, but it’s an especially great buy if you’re trying to lay off meat. This book contains everything from specific meal recipes to instructions for steaming veggies, truly teaching you how to cook from start to finish. There are recipes for every meal, as well as snacks and desserts, and it includes instructions for so many different dishes you could easily cook from only this book for an entire year and not get bored.


    Best for Longevity

    The Blue Zones Kitchen: 100 Recipes to Live to 100

    This cookbook highlights recipes from specific areas across the globe—called blue zones—where people live the longest. While some of their longevity surely comes from other lifestyle factors, there’s no discounting the role diet plays in their long-lasting health and wellbeing. These recipes not only focus on ingredients, but the ways in which foods are prepared and how that relates to their overall nutritional value.

    The goal of the book is to increase longevity and quality of life while creating delicious recipes that you’ll want to eat time and time again.


    Best Mediterranean

    The Complete Mediterranean Cookbook

    The Mediterranean diet is consistently ranked as one of the healthiest diets in the world. It’s full of lean proteins, healthy fats, and tons of vegetables, providing a well-rounded, nutritious way of eating.

    This cookbook not only has 500 great Mediterranean recipes, but it also helps you learn which ingredients you should make staples in your grocery list. It also uses only ingredients that you can easily find at standard grocery stores, which makes the Mediterranean diet more accessible.


    Best for Runners

    run fast eat slow

    You’ve probably heard the phrase “abs are made in the kitchen”—and to some degree, the same holds true for personal records. While nutritious food won’t necessarily knock 30 seconds off your mile time, it can help you fuel your workouts so you get the most out of your training.

    This book was designed by Olympian Shalane Flanagan and is packed with recipes designed to help runners fuel their toughest workouts and recover after. As a bonus, the recipes included in this book just so happen to be delicious, too.


    Best Vegan

    The Complete Plant-Based Cookbook

    When first going vegan, it can be difficult to figure out how to make food that is both delicious and nutritious. This book has 500 recipes ranging from meals to snacks to desserts that use entirely plant-based ingredients. These recipes also offer alternate ingredient options, like eggs and dairy, which is great if you want to add more plant-based recipes into your diet, but aren’t ready to dive headfirst into veganism.


    Best for a full reset

    The Whole30: The 30-Day Guide to Total Health and Food Freedom

    Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

    If you’ve been diet-hopping in hopes of finding a meal plan that can help you commit to a healthier lifestyle and enjoy some weight loss, Whole 30 is a great choice. It has you cut out sugar, grains, dairy, legumes, and some other specific foods for 30 days. The idea behind the diet is that it helps jumpstart weight loss while simultaneously getting you to reassess how you think about what you are eating to reach a place of freedom with your food.


    Best for weight loss

    The Obesity Code – Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss

    If weight loss is your goal, and you have struggled to find lasting success, this book could be a game-changer. It dives into the science of weight loss, helping you understand hormones, insulin resistance, and other reasons for weight gain. The book recommends intermittent fasting and a low-carb diet, and guides you on how to do them correctly, efficiently, and in the long term.


    Best for Learning about Food

    How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

    A lot of eating plans focus on what you should eliminate from your diet, but this book places more importance on what you should be adding to your diet and why.

    It discusses foods that are scientifically proven to help you live a longer, healthier life, and the many ways in which food can help prevent disease. It focuses on whole body health—including both mental and physical health—and teaches you to focus on more than just weight and physical appearance when it comes to your food.


    Best for Anti-Dieters

    Not a Diet Book: Take Control. Gain Confidence. ChangeYourLife.

    The rise of anti-diet culture gave inspiration to this book, which helps you improve your relationship with food, tackle weight loss, and debunk fad diets to find a simple and easy way to lose weight and create habits that will keep the pounds from coming back. This book will help you build skills that enable you to live a happier, healthier life without focusing too closely on calories or numbers on a scale.


    Best for fasting

    Complete Guide to Fasting

    Fasting has gained popularity over the last decade and can be a great way to boost your metabolism, clear your mind, and promote weight loss. There are, however, rules you should follow while fasting so that you improve your health rather than endangering it. This book will guide you through intermittent, alternate-day, and extended fasting to ensure you choose the style that will work best for you and do it correctly.

    Before joining Runner’s World as an Editor in 2019, Gabrielle Hondorp spent 6 years in running retail (she has tested top gear from shoes, to watches, to rain jackets which has expanded her expertise—and her closets); she specializes in health and wellness, and is an expert on running gear from head-to-toe.

    This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at

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Whole Grains Health

Eating different kinds of protein protects against hypertension: New study



Despite all this talk that more Australians are toying with vegetarianism, and despite the endless drum-beating about red meat giving you cancer and a dodgy heart, we continue to have one of the world’s highest levels of meat consumption.

Analysis published in December found Australians eat about 95 kilograms of meat per capita every year. The global average is 35 kilograms.

The article, ‘The Evolution of Urban Australian Meat-Eating Practices’, argues our meat-eating habits are driven by a blocky culture, an association with social status, a perception that plant-based diets are inadequate and lame, and ignorance about cooking legumes and tofu.

On the other hand, the authors point to a survey that found almost 20 per cent of those sampled “identified as meat-reducers”.

Furthermore, the authors say, 87 percent “of the meat reducer segment reported consuming a meat-free dish as their main meal at least once a week”.

They point to another survey that found almost 20 per cent described themselves as “flexitarian”, which is cool.

But it may not translate to more lentils, nuts, whole grains, fish and dairy hitting the dinner table as new favorite sources of protein.

A new study found why we need variety

Chinese researchers found that “eating protein from a greater variety of sources is associated with a lower risk of developing high blood pressure”.

Good to know because blood pressure is literally out of control in Australia.

One in three adults – more than six million Australians – has high blood pressure.

Of those afflicted, only 32 per cent have their hypertension under control. That leaves about four million Australians as ticking time bombs.

In December, in the Medical Journal of Australia, Professor Alta Schutte, Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at UNSW Sydney, called for a national taskforce to tackle the issue.

By improving the control of hypertension, the risks of coronary heart disease, dementia and cerebrovascular disease will be substantially reduced.

The Chinese study suggests changing your diet will go some way to solving the problem.

the study

“Nutrition may be an easily accessible and effective measure to fight against hypertension. Along with fat and carbohydrates, protein is one of the three basic macronutrients,” said study author Dr Xianhui Qin, of the National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease at Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University in Guangzhou, China.

The study authors analyzed health information for nearly 12,200 adults (average age 41), who had taken part in multiple rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1997 to 2015.

Over three days in the same week, participants shared what they had eaten.

They were given a protein “variety score” based on the different sources of protein they’d eaten: whole grains, refined grains, processed red meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, egg and legumes.

One point was given for each source of protein, with a maximum variety score of 8. The researchers then evaluated the association for new onset hypertension in relation to the protein variety score.

New-onset hypertension was defined as blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg/90 mm Hg, the use of blood pressure-lowering medicine, or self-reporting that a physician had diagnosed high blood pressure.

The average follow-up time was six years.

The results

More than 35 per cent of the participants developed new-onset high hypertension during the follow-up.

Compared to participants with the lowest variety score for protein intake (1), those with the highest variety score (4 or higher) had a 66 per cent lower risk of developing high blood pressure.

The amount of protein eaten was also a factor. Consumption was divided into five categories, from least to most intake.

The researchers found that “people who ate the least amount of total protein and those who ate most protein had the highest risk for new onset of hypertension”.

The researchers didn’t ask why a variety of proteins was more healthy. But nutritionists, doctors and health writers have banged on about it for years.

Lean red meat is high in quality protein but provides no fiber or healthy fats. Processed meats are high in saturated fats and salt and are the worst.

Fish is high in long-chain fatty acids, which are good for the brain. Lentils and whole grains are high in fibre.

Hand on heart, a bit of each during the week might stop you from carking it in the street. Which is just undignified and unmanly.

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