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What Are Postbiotics? Types, Benefits, and Downsides

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Prebiotics and probiotics have received a lot of attention for improving gut health. Recently, postbiotics have emerged as another group of beneficial compounds that can help improve your health.

They have been linked to a number of health benefits for the gut, immune system, and various other aspects of health.

Since the definitions can be confusing, here’s a quick rundown of each type:

  • Probiotics are healthy or “friendly” bacteria that live in your gut and support your health by converting fiber into compounds that are beneficial to your health (1).
  • Prebiotics are a group of nutrients, mainly fiber, that feed the beneficial bacteria in your gut (2).
  • Postbiotics are the bioactive compounds that the probiotic bacteria produce when they consume prebiotics (fiber).

This article gives you a comprehensive overview of postbiotics.

Postbiotics are bioactive compounds made when the healthy bacteria in your gut called probiotic bacteria feed on different types of prebiotic foods in your colon, such as: B. Fibers (3).

Although these bioactive compounds are considered to be waste products of probiotic bacteria, they offer your body various health benefits.

This is because many of the health benefits associated with prebiotics and probiotics actually come from making postbiotics.

There are several types of postbiotics (3):

  • short chain fatty acids
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Exopolysaccharides
  • Enzymes
  • Cell wall fragments
  • Bacterial lysates (a mixture of bacterial components)
  • cell-free supernatants (a mixture of compounds produced by bacteria and yeast)
  • various other metabolites such as vitamins and amino acids

Postbiotic supplements are not as widespread yet as they are relatively new compared to prebiotics and probiotics.

However, you can buy them at certain health food stores and online. Alternatively, since postbiotics are their end products, you can increase the number of postbiotics in your body by eating more prebiotic foods and probiotics.

Summary

Postbiotics are bioactive compounds that are made when the healthy bacteria in your intestinal fiber ferment. There are several types of postbiotics, and they offer health benefits similar to probiotics.

While the concept of postbiotics is fairly new, they have been around for a long time and are associated with several health benefits.

Can help boost your immune system

Postbiotics have properties that can help strengthen your immune system.

For example, postbiotics like butyrate, a short chain fatty acid, can stimulate the production of regulatory T cells in your gut. These cells help control the level of your body’s immune response (3).

Other postbiotics, such as cell wall fragments and supernatants from healthy bacteria, can increase the production of anti-inflammatory chemical messengers called cytokines, which help reduce inflammation and promote immune responses (3).

Studies in adults have shown that postbiotics can boost the immune system and protect against infections like colds.

A 12-week study in 80 healthy older adults found that daily postbiotic supplementation lowered the risk of respiratory infection and improved the ability to produce antibodies that protect the body from harmful bacteria and toxins (4).

In another 20-week study, 300 older adults were given either a placebo, a low-dose postbiotic, or a high-dose postbiotic supplement daily to protect themselves from colds.

At the end of the study, significantly fewer people in the low- and high-dose postbiotic group developed a cold than in the placebo group (5).

Can Help Reduce Digestive Symptoms

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects more than 1 million people in the United States.

Research suggests that postbiotics like short chain fatty acids may help improve symptoms in people with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease – two types of IBD.

People with IBD tend to produce fewer short chain fatty acids like butyrate in their gut, which plays a role in regulating immunity and inflammation in the digestive tract. For example, butyrate plays a role in activating immune cells that help reduce inflammation (6).

A small study of 13 people with mild to moderate Crohn’s disease found that taking 4 g of butyrate daily for 8 weeks led to clinical improvements and remissions in 53% of participants (7).

Several older studies, mainly from the 1990s, on postbiotics and IBD suggest that short-chain fatty acids like butyrate can improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis (8, 9, 10, 11).

Can help prevent and treat diarrhea

Research suggests that postbiotics can help prevent and treat diarrhea.

For example, a review of seven studies in 1,740 children found that supplementing with postbiotics significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and was more effective than placebo treatments in preventing diarrhea, pharyngitis, and laryngitis (12).

Similarly, a review of 23 studies in 3,938 children found that supplementing with postbiotics was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (13).

In a small study from 2003, 137 adults with chronic diarrhea were treated with either a postbiotic or a probiotic drug for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the postbiotic supplement was shown to be more effective than the probiotic in treating diarrhea (14).

A 4-week study of 297 adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also found that supplementation with a postbiotic significantly reduced the frequency of bowel movements, gas, and pain, and improved their overall quality of life (15).

Other potential benefits

Postbiotics have been linked to several other emerging health benefits, but more research is needed to determine the magnitude of these effects:

  • Can help with allergies. A study of 34 adults with atopic dermatitis (eczema) found that supplementing with a postbiotic for 8-12 weeks significantly reduced the severity of the condition. In comparison, the placebo group showed no improvements (16).
  • Can help you lose weight. Some studies suggest that postbiotics like short chain fatty acids can aid weight loss by suppressing hunger signals (17, 18, 19).
  • May help lower your risk of heart disease. In animal studies, butyrate appears to lower blood pressure and suppress genes that play a role in cholesterol production (20, 21).
  • Can help control blood sugar levels. Studies suggest that butyrate may be helpful in controlling blood sugar levels (22, 23).
  • May have anti-tumor properties. Some test-tube and animal studies suggest that postbiotics may have properties that suppress the growth and spread of some cancer cells, including colon and stomach cancer cells (24, 25, 26).
  • Can be tolerated better than probiotics. When you consume probiotics, you increase the number of beneficial bacteria in your body. However, some people may not tolerate probiotics well, so postbiotics may be a more suitable alternative (27).

Summary

Postbiotics have been linked to various health benefits, such as: Such as helping immunity, preventing or treating diarrhea, reducing symptoms of irritable bowel disease, reducing the severity of certain allergies, helping weight loss, and more.

In general, postbiotics are considered safe and well tolerated in healthy people.

When you take a probiotic supplement to increase the production of postbiotics, you may experience digestive side effects such as gas, gas, bloating, and mild stomach discomfort. These symptoms usually go away once your body has adjusted (28).

However, certain groups of people should avoid increasing their postbiotic levels by consuming foods rich in probiotic.

These groups tend to have weaker or weakened immune systems and therefore may be at an increased risk for a side effect (29):

  • People who have recently had an operation
  • People with structural heart disease
  • People with indigestion
  • pregnant people
  • children

As with any dietary supplement, it is important to speak to a doctor before taking any post-biotic dietary supplement, especially if you have any health problems or are taking medication.

Summary

In general, postbiotics are safe and well tolerated. Due to potential health concerns, certain groups of people may want to avoid increasing their postbiotics production by consuming probiotic foods.

Postbiotics aren’t as common as prebiotics and probiotics.

However, you can buy them at select health food stores and online. In some cases, instead of being called “postbiotics”, they may have another name, such as sodium butyrate, calcium butyrate, or dry yeast fermentate.

Since postbiotics are made through fermentation by healthy bacteria in your gut, you can naturally increase your postbiotics production by eating prebiotic and probiotic foods.

As you eat more prebiotic and probiotic foods to get more postbiotics, you get the added health benefits associated with prebiotics and probiotics.

Sources of Prebiotics

Prebiotics are generally found in high-fiber foods like whole grains and vegetables. The following foods are some good sources:

  • Chicory root
  • garlic
  • Onions
  • leek
  • asparagus
  • barley
  • oats
  • linseed
  • seaweed

Sources of probiotics

Probiotics are generally found in fermented foods and beverages, such as:

  • Live culture yogurt
  • kefir
  • sauerkraut
  • Kimchi
  • Miso
  • Tempeh
  • Kombucha

Summary

Postbiotic supplements aren’t widely available, but can be found at some health food stores and online. They may be listed under an alternate name. You can naturally increase your post-biotic production by eating more prebiotic and probiotic foods.

Postbiotics are bioactive compounds made when the friendly bacteria in your gut (probiotic bacteria) digest and break down fibers (prebiotics).

Although postbiotics are technically considered a waste product, they offer various health benefits, similar to probiotics.

Postbiotics can support your immune system, prevent or treat diarrhea, relieve symptoms associated with irritable bowel disease, and even reduce the severity of certain allergies.

Postbiotics are generally safe and well tolerated, and can be purchased from some health food stores and online. Alternatively, you can naturally increase your body’s postbiotic production by consuming more prebiotics and probiotics.

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Whole Grains Health

Tips on how to raise a healthy child on a vegan diet

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Parents often wonder if children are getting enough protein on a plant-based diet. This is understandable given the importance of protein to a growing child. If you have decided to start a vegan diet for a child, here are some things you should know.

How Much Protein is Enough?

The recommended intake for a healthy adult is 46 grams of protein per day for women and 56 grams for men. But the average adult in developed countries eats far more protein than they actually need. In fact, they are eating roughly double the recommended amount! It is therefore easy to get enough protein simply by consuming a variety of plant-based foods, including beans, legumes, nuts, broccoli, and whole grains.

Vegetable proteins

Did you know that plant-based foods contain more vitamins and minerals, contain fiber, and contain far less sodium, saturated fats and cholesterol than their meat and milk-based counterparts? They also don’t contain antibiotics and other scary medicines commonly found in meat and dairy products. Here are a few other herbal facts:

  • Soy protein provides the same protein quality as meat and contains all of the essential amino acids.
  • Non-heme iron is found in a wide variety of plant foods, including leafy vegetables, beans and grains, nuts, and seeds.
  • Omega-3, which is also a common problem, can be easily replicated in a plant-based diet of flaxseed, hempseed, and chia seeds, to name a few.

The benefits of the plant-based diet

With increasing awareness of the benefits of the plant-based diet, there is now a wider variety of kid-friendly plant-based meals on the market. It’s so much easier these days to replicate foods that kids eat and enjoy in plant-based versions these days.

The challenges of vegan parenting

Being a parent has its challenges. But raising vegan kids in a non-vegan world is really tough.

Here are a few ideas to help you out.

  • Remember, your child is not you. It is up to you to teach them the values ​​that you have as a family unit. You are there to guide and inspire them. If, as you get older, they make different decisions than you do, don’t take it personally or as a sign that you have failed.
  • Keep meals exciting. Get creative in the kitchen with your kids. Try to make food art with the vegetables. Think Rainbow Wraps, Noughts and Crosses (winner eats everything) and become a master of disguise (hide the vegetables they don’t normally eat).
  • Talk about the food you prepared. Educate your children about the health benefits. Raising yourself and your children will benefit you all greatly. Discuss how you prepared the food and where it came from (e.g. if it is grown by yourself, from a nearby farm). Talking about where animal products came from can also help the rest of the family understand your point of view. Keep emotions out of these discussions – be open, honest, and logical.
  • Realize that everyone is on their own path. You cannot impose your own feelings on others. Listen to their point of view, be kind, and give your own thoughts in a non-confrontational way. Plant seeds. Do not judge. Be compassionate.
  • Be prepared for events. School events, fundraisers, get-togethers, and children’s parties usually involve animal products. Pack some options for your kids.
  • Connect with animals. Go to a farm together and spend time with the rescued animals. Make sure your kids have a real connection with animals.
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Whole Grains Health

4 Ways to Support Heart Health After COVID

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Returning to an exercise program (or starting an exercise) is an important way to support your heart health.

Credit: StefaNikolic / E + / GettyImages

As we continue to live with COVID-19, researchers are learning more and more about the havoc it can wreak on the human body. Although COVID-19 was initially thought of only as a respiratory disease, it has turned out to affect far more than just the lungs.

In fact, more and more studies are finding that long-distance COVID drivers or people who continue to have symptoms long after being infected with the virus experience an increase in heart failure.

A July 2020 study at JAMA Cardiology performed cardiac MRIs on 100 patients who had recently recovered from the virus and found abnormalities in 78 percent and persistent myocarditis in 60 percent.

Another study in Circulation in December 2020 (conducted during the first wave of the pandemic) found that nearly 20 percent of people hospitalized for the virus had some type of heart injury.

More research needs to be done on the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the heart, especially since we already have a heart health crisis in the US

Even before COVID, heart disease was the number one killer of adults in the United States and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

“When the pandemic peaked, COVID temporarily became the leading cause of death every day in the US, but heart disease is still the second leading cause of death,” said Steven Schiff, MD, cardiologist and medical director of the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at the Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California. “It will almost certainly be the main culprit again as the pandemic subsides in the months ahead.”

How COVID-19 affects the heart

Although there are certain cases where the COVID-19 virus can attack the heart muscle directly and cause damage, Dr. Schiff found that the heart is more likely to be involved as a side effect when the virus attacks other organs.

“When a patient with COVID develops severe and overwhelming pneumonia, their oxygen levels drop and their heart has to work harder with less oxygen,” he explains, adding that we still have a lot to learn about the longer-term effects.

According to Dr. Schiff, the biggest impact of COVID on heart health is not what the virus physically does in the body, but that the pandemic itself has led to increased fear of going to the doctor or hospital, which has caused people to avoid or need long-term care to delay.

“People with symptoms of a heart attack or stroke, including chest pain, palpitations, or shortness of breath, have stayed home for fear of exposure to the virus, which increases the likelihood of bad complications from heart disease,” he says. “The risk of staying home for fear of COVID-19 exposure is far more dangerous than seeking help.”

Richard E. Collins, Dr canceled or withheld. “All of this equates to a potential payback period for the occurrence of heart disease,” he says.

What To Do To Rebuild Heart Health After COVID

Grilled salmon, fried potatoes and vegetables on a wooden background

Fish like salmon are full of healthy fats that are good for the heart. Try to eat fish or seafood two to three times a week.

Credit: gbh007 / iStock / GettyImages

If you’ve had COVID-19 or are still recovering, heart health should be a top priority. However, it is entirely possible that your path to recovery will not be straight and narrow and that you will feel tired as you gradually return to your routine.

“Recovery times vary in different people,” notes Saurabh Rajpal, MD, cardiologist and assistant professor in the Cardiovascular Medicine Department at Ohio State University College of Medicine. “While some people can recover in days, others can feel tired for weeks after being infected with the virus.”

Here are some of the ways you can restore your heart health while your body recovers from COVID.

1. Move as much as you can

While you may be sluggish, it’s important not to remain sedentary while your body recovers from the virus, notes Dr. Rajpal.

“Total immobility is a risk factor for blood clots and should be avoided,” he warns.

After a few days of rest, he recommends gradually returning to your exercise routine, with the goal of starting with 50 to 60 percent of your best capacity and gradually increasing it over the next few days.

“If you have symptoms like chest discomfort, shortness of breath, or fast or irregular heartbeat when you return to activity, see your doctor,” he says.

2. Eat a healthy, nutritious diet

You know the importance of a healthy diet, but you may not understand the critical role it plays in your heart health. In fact, a 2015 study by the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, fish, poultry, healthy fats, and moderate dairy products can reduce risk for heart disease by about a third.

When it comes to the list of foods to avoid, avoid anything that is overprocessed (think fast food or packaged foods with long ingredient lists), fried foods, or those high in saturated fats, which will lower your LDL levels can increase (“bad”) cholesterol, notes Michael Blaha, MD, director of clinical research at the Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins Medicine.

3. Keep up to date with all of your medical appointments

While it may seem an inconvenient time for you to see your doctor, avoiding preventive measures is never a good idea.

“This could lead to disease progression to a level that would not occur if people had regular medical checkups,” said Alexandra Lajoie, MD, a non-invasive cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California .

Aside from only showing up for these doctor visits, it is important to speak to your doctor about any symptoms you may have. Dr. Schiff recommends making sure that your laboratory tests are regularly monitored, especially for blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and that you see your doctor if you notice any symptoms of heart disease, including chest discomfort, shortness of breath, rapid, or irregular heartbeat.

The list of health effects related to smoking is one pretty compelling reason to quit smoking if you haven’t already – and heart health is one of them. In fact, Dr. Lajoie that the most important thing anyone can do to improve their heart health is to completely avoid smoking.

“Smoking is almost a guarantee that you will develop some form of cardiovascular disease during your lifetime,” she says.

If you’re looking for help quitting, consider these seven research-backed strategies and visit the SAMHSA website which has a hotline as well as multiple resources.

Read more stories to help you cope with the pandemic:

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Whole Grains Health

Starch snacks can increase the risk of CVD.Fruits and vegetables in certain diets reduce risk

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Photo credit: Unsplash / CC0 public domain

Can Starchy Snacks Harm My Heart Health? New research announced today in Journal of the American Heart Association, the American Heart Association’s open access journal, states that consuming starchy snacks high in white potatoes and other starches after a meal increases the risk of death by at least 50% and the risk of cardiovascular death by 44-57%. I’ve found it to be increasing. Conversely, eating fruits, vegetables, or dairy products in a particular diet is associated with a lower risk of dying from cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other causes.

Ying Li, Ph.D., lead researcher at the Faculty of Public Health, Harbin Medical University in Harbin, and professor at the Faculty of Nutrition and Food Hygiene. Said: China. “Our team tried to better understand the effects of different foods on a particular diet.”

Liet al. Analyzed the results of 21,503 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted in the United States from 2003 to 2014, and assessed the nutritional patterns of all diets. Of the surveyed population, 51% of the participants were women and all participants were over 30 years old at the start of the survey. To determine patient outcomes, researchers used the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Death Index to record participants who died of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other causes by December 31, 2015. did.

The researchers categorized the participants’ eating patterns by analyzing what types of foods they ate in different diets. For the main diet, three main diet patterns were identified for the morning diet: western, starchy and fruity breakfast. Western lunch, vegetable and fruit eating were identified as the main eating patterns for lunch. Western dinner, vegetable and fruit meals were identified as main meals. For dinner.

For snacks, grain snacks, starchy snacks, fruit snacks and milk snacks were identified as the main snack patterns between meals. In addition, participants who did not conform to any particular nutritional pattern were analyzed as a reference group. The researchers pointed out that the Western diet is high in fat and protein, similar to many North American diets.

The participants in the western lunch group consumed the most refined grains, solid fats, cheese, sugar and hardened meats. The participants in the fruit lunch group consumed most of the whole grain products, fruit, yogurt and nuts. The participants in the vegetable-based dinner group consumed the most commonly served dark vegetables, red and orange vegetables, tomatoes and other vegetables and legumes. Participants who consumed starchy snacks ate the most white potatoes.

According to their findings:

  • Eating a western lunch (usually with refined grains, cheese, and hardened meat) increased the risk of CVD death by 44%.
  • Fruit-Based Diet Lunch It was associated with a 34% reduction in the risk of dying from CVD.
  • Eating a plant-based dinner was associated with a 23% and 31% reduction in cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, respectively. And
  • Eating snacks with high postprandial strength increased the risk of death from all causes by 50-52% and the risk of CVD-related death by 44-57%.

“Our results show that the amount and timing of different types of food are equally important to maintaining optimal health,” says Li. “Future dietary guidelines and intervention strategies can incorporate optimal times for consuming foods throughout the day. “

Limitations of this study include the participants’ self-reported nutritional data, which can lead to memory bias. And while researchers have been controlling potential confounders, they cannot rule out other unmeasured confounders.

People who eat a plant-based dinner can reduce their risk of heart disease by 10 percent

For more informations:
American Heart Association Journal (2021). www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.120.020254

Provided by
American Heart Association

Quote: Starch snacks can increase the risk of CVD. Fruits and vegetables in certain diets reduce the risk (June 23, 2021) June 23, 2021 https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06-starchy-snacks-cvd-fruits- Obtaining Vegetables.html

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Starch snacks can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. Fruits and vegetables in certain diets reduce the risk

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